Hash Rosin 101: Lessons from Experienced Solventless Extractors

Hash Rosin 101: Lessons from Experienced Solventless Extractors

Original Post: High Times: Hash Rosin 101: Lessons from Experienced Solventless Extractors

[Canniseur: Solventless concentrates are nearly impossible to find in most dispensaries in legal states. Water hash is almost the stuff of legends. In my experience at adult-use legal dispensaries in legal states, I always ask for water or solventless hash. I almost never find it. There’s one company in Colorado (Lazercat) who only creates water hash. Given the super high quality of their product, Lazercat commands a premium price. I’m sure there are others, but I don’t know them. The bottom line is that solventless concentrates are very difficult to find, but have incredible quality. Fascinating interview with several solventless hash makers in Michigan. But try to find their products!]

Your ultimate guide on hash rosin.

Made with no more than water, heat, pressure, and a few tools, hash rosin has become one of the most prized forms of cannabis resin today. Most hash rosin is made by squishing ice water hash instead of flower at the right temperature and pressure levels for yields that fail to rival solvent extractions. It also requires high-quality and properly maintained starting material to match the flavor and melt-quality of something made with hydrocarbon solvents.

There are also varying qualities of hash rosin. But thanks to the taste of concentrate connoisseurs, products like live rosin have become the most expensive and limited cannabis products being sold today. To better understand the many forms of modern hash rosin, I sat down with four premiere solventless extractors from Michigan with varying perspectives during the last High Times event in Detroit.

Solventless Extractors

Today’s hashmakers press their hash into rosin and don the titles of solventless extractors. The extractors I spoke to have several years of experience working with rosin.

After originally outsourcing their plant material to other hashmakers for years, the founder of Superior Flowers, Kerry, started Superior Solventless to create some of the highest-grade single source hash rosin in the state. Seeing jars with his labels in the stashes of most other competing local hashmakers I’ve met speaks volumes to how much his work is respected in the community.

Tyler of Wojo Wax recently took home a second-place medal for Best Non-Solvent Concentrate with their single source Cream D’Mint at the Michigan Cannabis Cup in 2019. Tyler said he has been making hash for about 2 and a half years but feels he really found his groove after taking a hashmaking consult in Las Vegas about a year ago.

Anthony AKA the Organic Mechanic, has been growing and making traditional hash for over 15 years with a focus on pressing rosin over the last two to three years. He’s a hash veteran that I’ve seen doing live demos and pressing hash and flowers that guests bring to his booth at the Cannabis Cup over the last few years.

Mark from Covert Extracts is one of the first to introduce mechanically separated hash rosin to Michigan cannabis consumers. Using the technique, he took first place for Non-Solvent Concentrate with the mechanically separated Mother’s Milk THCA and terpenes grown by Ghostbudsters Farm at the Michigan Cannabis Cup in 2019.

Not All Hash is Made Equal

Two jars of hash rosin from the same extractor, strain and batch.

When it comes to hash rosin, terms like 90u and 120u are different parts of the trichome separated by size. The “u” or μ to be accurate is a measurement that refers to the different micron sizes of the holes in the multiple bags used to filter and separate trichomes from the rest of the plant during the “washing” process.

“Washing” is slang for making ice water hash. More specifically, it is when plant material is put into a bucket of ice water and stirred before it is strained, leaving only hash behind. However, it’s worth noting that dry sift hash can be made without water and ice but most of the live rosin on shelves today is made by turning ice water hash made with freshly frozen materials into rosin.

In fact, all four of the hashmakers I interviewed use ice water hash over dry sift material when making their rosin.

Beyond that, different hashmakers include or exclude certain trichome sizes from their final product. As a result, certain jars of hash and rosin being sold on the market are labeled as 90u, 120u, full spectrum or some range in between.

Differences in Micron Sizes

Kerry of Superior Solventless broke down the differences between the separate micron sizes and what they mean to consumers.

He compared washing flowers to straining pasta. Big holes let the water out and keep all the stuff you want isolated from falling through. However, in the case of making hash, multiple strainers with smaller and smaller holes are needed to separate the different parts of the trichome from the rest of the plant.

“So, when you’re looking at something like 120u [up close], you’re going to see things that are intact. Basically, a stalk and glandular head right up on top. Then, when you see a 90u or a 73u, you’re mainly going to see heads. Heads that have been knocked off the stalks. You can even see them both individually in the 73 and 90u. That generally is what melts really well. Followed down by 45u and 25u.”

The trichome head has proven to be the most prized component of the plant. The fact that they mostly end up in the 90 and 73u bags as Kerry describes is why jars of pure 90 or 73u hash rosin have become more expensive and desired than full spectrum hash by some.

To get a better idea of what goes into the rosin I’ve been smoking, I asked the four hashmakers what sizes they include in their final product and why.

What is Full Spectrum Hash Rosin?

Fresh Press Banana OG full spectrum live rosin from Covert Extracts

When asked if they leave the 25u or anything else out of their full spectrum rosin Kerry replied, “We do not. Our motto or our philosophy and principle is to be full spectrum from the beginning to the end of the process.”

According to Kerry, the 90u and 73u are the “meat and potatoes of your dinner plate” and make up the majority of the weight of the yield. In fact, he claimed 90u alone “makes up 70 percent of your wash.”

He warned consumers that if they see a product that’s labeled 90u and you see that same strain from the same company in full spectrum form as well, there’s a chance the 90 or 73u were left out of that full spectrum. That means you’re only getting about 30 percent of the actual hash spectrum despite the full spectrum label.

When asked if he prefers to smoke 90u over full spectrum Kerry said he personally feels 90u lacks certain flavors and the “entourage effect” from missing cannabinoids that would have been in the full spectrum.

“We have one product. That product is all full spectrum. From there we manipulate the consistency,” he said.

The other three hashmakers I spoke to leave what they perceive as the less desirable ends of the hash spectrum like 25 and the much higher microns out of the final product.

Which Microns Make the Cut?

In response to what goes into their full spectrum, Anthony from the Organic Mechanic responded, “45-159u is what I use for my full spectrum.”

He added that he leaves out the 25 and the 159 because “in my personal opinion, it’s all the broken stalks and little pieces of heads that fall through.”

Anthony also added that you would have to wash an extremely large quantity for the 25u to amount to anything worthwhile.

Tyler of Wojo Wax agreed by saying, “like Anthony said, I catch 40 to 159. I’ve done 25 before and never went above 159u. My reasoning for it is it just makes the color a little bit darker and a lot of people base it [the quality] on color. I didn’t notice much of a difference as far as effect. Yields are obviously a little bit better if you are throwing in those bags, but I’ll sacrifice that yield for the lighter color.”

Covert also found that, in his experience, the 45 to 159u range for his full spectrum rosin was the best for maintaining the flavor of the original plant. The remaining hash that get left out of smokable product is still used in capsules or edibles.

I asked Kerry why he felt less inclined to leave out the 25u and he admitted, “the 70u is going to be white, the 25u or the 159 and above is definitely going to be on the greener, darker, less smelly side.”

But he added that he believes the ends have beneficial properties and those parts make up a much smaller portion of the weight of the wash.

Furthermore, when you make rosin, “you’re taking all the hash and you’re putting it through an entire filtration process again and you can look at that bag and you can see what’s leftover.”

Animal Mints live rosin jam processed by @greenthumbforpresident

Never Judge a Book by Its Cover

Hashmakers are tasked with selecting strains of flower that will provide a sustainable yield and desirable characteristics after being washed and pressed into rosin.

When asked what his favorite strain to wash was, Kerry of Superior Flowers responded, “I would say Purple Pebbles as well as TKP currently. The TKP was very deceptive when I was running through the pheno hunt. The plant to the naked eyes doesn’t look covered in frost like the Cookies strain.”

Despite the lack of visible frost on the plant, he assured us the yields from washing the TKP were surprisingly high.

And vice versa, he added, “if you’re familiar with the MAC, looking at it you would think ‘wow, that thing is covered [in frost], if it gets washed it’s going to do phenomenal,’ but sometimes that’s not the case and you never want to judge a book by its cover.”

Tyler’s current favorite plant to wash is Sundae Driver because it “checks every single box from nose to taste to yield.”

He described it as a delicious dessert dab with fruity flavors that speak to the Grape Pie half of its lineage.

The Organic Mechanic had similar woes with MAC and Tyler from Wojo Wax agreed that he’s washed material that was frosty in appearance but only yielded .3% — and when you’re getting that little in return, it becomes impossible for hashmakers to keep their lights on. To put that .3% into perspective, yields for hash-friendly strains like GMO can be as high as 8%.

Anthony from the Organic Mechanic said his favorite strain to wash is GG#4 because it has been consistent in every category including yield, potency and smell.

“The color on it is beautiful, the taste, the yield, the terp on it is just loud. Everybody that has got a hold of it likes it. Also, Cherry Punch from Greener Thumb’s outdoor grow is another one of my favorites because of the terps.”

Mark, the lead extractor for Covert Extracts says his current favorite is the mountain cut of Tropicanna Cookies bred by Harry Palms and grown by Ghostbudsters Farm because of the prominent terpene profile. He gave GMO an honorable mention as well because “it dumps, it’s stinky and it checks every box for me. It’s my go-to.”

Mason Jar Test Wash

Tyler admits he made the mistake of judging how well a strain would wash based of the quality of its appearance. After putting in tons of work processing an extremely large bulk of flower for a friend that ended up looking far better than it yielded, he learned his lesson the hard way.

Since it is impossible to rely on looks alone to tell how well a strain will wash after the harvest, Tyler recommends paying attention to genetics and performing a small mason jar test before washing an entire grow and being surprised it didn’t yield enough to break even.

Tyler said that when sourcing starting material, solventless extractors “have to truly look for what strains are going to wash well. You gotta look at the parents and then as you’re growing them too, you can tell by the size of the head if you’re scoping it. A new thing that we started doing is doing a test wash. You can put a small amount of flower in a mason jar with water and ice then start swishing it around to see if those heads fall off because it can be the frostiest plant ever like the MAC and not dump at all. It’s got to want to let that head go because we’re not after the stalk.”

With the mason jar test wash method, Tyler says only about a half ounce of flower is needed rather than using a whole plant or more when it might not yield much.

Live Rosin vs. Cured

Cured rosin by Mammoth Melts from Rhode Island.

Most modern hashmakers exclusively work with “live” or freshly frozen starting material. This is best illustrated by the fact that only one of the four hashmakers I interviewed for this article currently processes dry or cured flower.

I asked Anthony from Organic Mechanic if he preferred using fresh frozen starting material over cured and he replied, “I would do either one if the product was taken care of.”

However, he finds flavor can be lost during the curing process.

On the other hand, the other three hashmakers exclusively work with live products for a number of reasons.

Kerry said in his experience at Superior Solventless, he observed differences in the yield, color, potency and consumer demand.

Tyler used both live and cured products before the Wojo Wax team deciding to only use freshly frozen flowers. Tyler says that in his experience, the yield was higher with cured material. Despite this, he exclusively runs live material because of the enhanced flavor and the fact that it melts better in his experience.

Mark prefers live because it “tastes better, the color is obviously better” and that’s been enough to keep him exclusively working with freshly frozen flowers.

Single Source vs. Outsourcing Flower for Hash Rosin

I asked a few of the hashmakers if they noticed any differences when extracting flower they grew themselves versus outsourcing plant material.

“This is probably my favorite question so far because this to me is where you really get your difference [in hash quality]. We do everything single source,” said Tyler of Wojo Wax.

He says the reason for this is, “growing for hash is different than growing for flower.”

Macro shot of the GMO strain grown by Loki Gro

Growing for Hash

“For starters, I’m not defoliating as much as I am for hash because I’m trying to get as much surface area as much as I can. On top of that, I crank my room down as cold I can possibly get it for the last three weeks because that preserves the terpenes which is what we’re ultimately after. Another reason is because I’ve taken [other] people’s materials and it doesn’t always yield well. I don’t want to be the bearer of bad news to somebody that they’re getting .3% back on a wash.”

When asked if he also noticed a difference when washing the same strain from his own grow compared to somebody else’s, Kerry of Superior Solventless admits the experiences were not the same.

“For example, we washed Wedding Cake that we grew and got 5%. We washed someone else’s and got 3%.”

Mechanical Separation vs. Jar Tech

There are two additional ways for hashmakers to further process hash after it has been turned into rosin. Using these techniques, they can turn the consistency of their rosin into something closer to a live resin sauce.

Live rosin jam.

Rosin Jam

One is called “jar tech” which just about anyone should be able to do at home with a jar of fresh-pressed rosin, a source of heat, time and practice. The consistency it creates has been called jam or “caviar” by Superior Solventless and it contains small crystals with a more liquidy high-terpene layer. The layers combine to create an applesauce-like consistency that is less likely to change at room temperature than fresh-pressed rosin.

Unlike the washing and pressing phases, the hashmakers I spoke to claim little to no weight is lost after a jar of hash rosin undergoes the “jar tech.”

On the other hand, the other technique which involves mechanically separating THCA out of the oil comes with a more significant yield loss.

If you come across a jar of solventless rosin with large THCA crystals and oil in it, they were most likely mechanically separated with a press and filters. Then, the crystals are melted down and manipulated into a shape of choice. Usually, they are made to mimic the appearance of popular live resin extracts made with hydrocarbon solvents.

Mechanically Separated THCA and Terpenes from Covert Extracts and Ghostbudsters Farm.

Mechanical Separation

According to Mark of Covert Extracts to make mechanically separated THCA, “you need wax rosin in order to make mechanically separated THCA.”

From there, he says, “to separate the THCA from terpenes I usually press the rosin wax in a 25u press bag at about 135 degrees to start. With a very low pressure at first before building to almost max pressure. Then, I repeat at different temps until I feel enough terpenes are separated. From there you can take the THCA and melt it down into a glass-like consistency at around 240 to 250 degrees.”

Comparing it to the jam tech or fresh press, Mark said it is a “long process and you have about a 25% loss in yield but potency and appearance of the final product sets it apart.”

The process appears to further isolate THCA in hash rosin with Mark claiming to have “had some testing out at 92% THCA.”

There was a point in time when most hash looked the same. It was a dark brown or green in color and stretchy. Traditional hash commonly came in a brick, ball, or bullet that may have traveled inside someone’s ass before getting to you.

Fortunately, today’s hash has is far more refined and versatile. It looks more like a lighter colored oil that can take on the form of dry sift, ice wax, rosin, live rosin, jam, or mechanically separated hash rosin. Not to mention the various consistencies that rosin can be shape-shifted into, like cake batter, sugar, or applesauce.

Hash Rosin 101: Lessons from Experienced Solventless Extractors was posted on High Times.

The CalCannabis Appellations Project Is About to Spark a New Chapter in Place-Based Branding

The CalCannabis Appellations Project Is About to Spark a New Chapter in Place-Based Branding

Original Post: Cannabis Industry: The CalCannabis Appellations Project Is About to Spark a New Chapter in Place-Based Branding

[Canniseur: In the wine business, provenance (where the wine is from) is everything. Where the grapes were grown should be an indication of the character of the wine, if not the quality. Why should cannabis be any different? While the jury is out on cannabis appelations (place names), it will be very interesting to find out if cannabis follows the same rules as Vitis vinifera (wine grapes like cabernet are all in this genus and species) as far as place, growing, flavor and effect. Will you be able to tell that a particular bud is from Humboldt by its taste and effect sometime in the future?]

Connoisseurs know that pairing a fine cut of steak with a Napa Valley cabernet sauvignon is a sure winner. But how many are aware that pairing strawberry cheesecake with a certified Santa Cruz Blue Dream cannabis strain creates an equally delicate palatal synergy? Thanks to the California Department of Food and Agriculture’s CalCannabis Appellations Project (“CAP”), premium cannabis regions will soon have the potential to capitalize on such newfound awareness among discerning consumers.

For decades, cannabis connoisseurs have been willing to pay a premium for flower said to have been grown in certain regions or with certain techniques, but because of cannabis’ legal status, supply chains have been opaque. As a result, cultivators of distinct cannabis strains struggled to capture the full market potential of their products. That has begun to shift with implementation of California’s Cannabis Track-and-Trace System. The costs associated with implementation of the METRC1 system have been bemoaned by many in the industry, but there is also tremendous potential value in having the most transparent supply chain in the world. The CalCannabis Appellations Project is the vehicle through which brands will be able to harness that value.

The underlying premise behind the CalCannabis Appellations Project is that the distinctive qualities of a cannabis product are often attributable to where and how the plant is grown. Through this project, CalCannabis is developing a statewide appellations system2 that will allow qualifying licensed cultivators to effectively communicate information about their cannabis crops (i.e., the standards, practices and/or varietals used) through labels, advertisements and other marketing techniques. It will also prevent disingenuous cannabis cultivators from making inaccurate claims about where and how a product is grown, which protects the integrity and value of the appellation.

What is an appellation?

In general terms, an appellation is an identifying name, title or label that can be legally defined and protected. Appellations are most commonly used in the wine industry to geographically identify the origin of grapes in a particular bottle. This place-based identification system comes from an understanding that certain regions have unique environmental and growing characteristics, which result in a product that cannot be produced from other regions even when the same varietals are used. Famous wine appellations or American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) in California include the Napa Valley and Santa Ynez AVAs, and sub-AVAs such as the Russian River Valley AVA, located within the larger Sonoma County AVA.

Recognizing there are also growing regions that produce uniquely distinctive cannabis, CalCannabis is developing a process for:

  1. Establishing an appellation (i.e., identifying regions that produce distinctive cannabis and defining standards, practices and/or varietals that must be used in those regions to qualify for an appellation); and
  2. Qualifying to use a particular appellation once they are established (i.e., determining the cannabis cultivators that can legally label or market themselves as belonging to a particular appellation).

While the state has not released program details, it’s likely that cultivators will have to demonstrate their outdoor-grown cannabis is distinctly unique.3 CalCannabis has until Jan. 21, 2021,4 to establish these processes, but a draft is expected to be released by early January 2020.5 This is an opportunity for cultivators to organize and participate in the process to define and create unique local appellations.

What are the benefits of an appellations system?

Napa wine country
Image: James Faulkner, Flickr

Appellations benefit both cannabis cultivators and consumers. It allows small farmers to capture the value that consumers place on unique and local cannabis products. Allowing for product differentiation through an appellations system will prevent cannabis from becoming a commodity—a situation that could result in indistinguishable products and a single market price for cannabis regardless of how or where it is grown. Thus, an appellations system protects not only local economies and farming communities, but also consumers that care about the origin and growing practices of their cannabis.

A criticism of appellations, particularly in the wine industry, is that they can disincentivize innovation and industry growth when strict growing practices and standards are required to be a part of an appellation. This will be an important consideration as CalCannabis establishes its appellations system.

County of Origin

In addition to setting up an appellations system, the CalCannabis Appellations Project will expand upon current county of origin regulations. Unlike an appellation designation, the county of origin designation is designed to be much more inclusive—it can currently be used on any cannabis product as long as 100% of the cannabis is grown within the designated county.6 Whereas an appellation will communicate information about the quality of a cannabis product and how it was produced, a county of origin designation is more like a “Made In” label. For example, a county of origin designation can be applied to indoor cannabis whereas an appellation will likely only include sun-grown cannabis.

There is also a desire to allow city of origin designations in addition to county of origin designations, which would enable products grown wholly within the political boundaries of a city to further differentiate themselves.7 As the legal cannabis landscape changes nationwide, it may also be important to have a statewide appellation allowing products to be marketed as “Grown in California.

What should cannabis cultivation regions be doing now?

After CalCannabis releases a draft process for establishing an appellation, the next steps will be clarified. However, not everyone is waiting. For instance, growers in Mendocino County have already started to organize.8 The Mendocino Appellations Project divided the county into 11 unique subregions based on regional growing conditions and practices that could potentially be turned into appellations in the future. The goal of the appellations outlined by the Mendocino Appellations Project is to protect cannabis products coming out of Mendocino County and preserve the region’s growing heritage.

A group in Sonoma County is also discussing the establishment of appellations with the hope that it will help differentiate their cannabis and draw attention to the unique microclimate and soil structure in parts of Sonoma County.9 The groups involved in these discussions also believe it will allow cultivators to develop strict growing standards and to protect certain strains, while creating new jobs and encouraging agritourism. Appellations will become increasingly important as sophisticated consumers begin to select quality cannabis that aligns with their preferences.


References

  1. METRC is the third-party-owned software contracted by California authorities to implement the commercial cannabis track-and-trace system “from seed-to-sale.”
  2. Passage of Senate Bill 185 calls for the use of the term “appellations of origin” instead of “appellations.”
  3. Based on comments made during the October 23 Cannabis Advisory Committee Meeting.
  4. Business and Professions Code Section 26063.
  5. Based on comments made during the October 23 Cannabis Advisory Committee Meeting.
  6. Business and Professions Code Section 26063(a).
  7. Based on comments made during the October 23 Cannabis Advisory Committee Meeting.
  8. https://swamiselect.com/mendocino-appellation-project/
  9. https://www.sonomacountygazette.com/sonoma-county-news/cannabis-appellations-the-small-cannabis-farmers-elyon-cannabis.

The post The CalCannabis Appellations Project Is About to Spark a New Chapter in Place-Based Branding appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.

Book Excerpt: After The Harvest

Book Excerpt: After The Harvest

Original Post: High Times: Book Excerpt: After The Harvest

[Canniseur: This book is an essential guide for anyone who is growing their own. We predict that home grown cannabis will become as popular as homemade beer in the future. Especially until the states where cannabis is legal get their act together and make sensible regulations for both growers and retailers.]

This excerpt, originally published in the November, 2019 issue of High Times magazine, is from the recent book, Marijuana Harvest: Maximizing Quality and Yield in Your Cannabis Garden by Ed Rosenthal and David Downs. Subscribe to High Times here.

Storing

Marijuana quality and potency changes over time. In the living plant, the precursors of THC and CBD are found in their acid forms, THCa and CBDa. These are not psychotropic. Only when they lose a portion of their molecules do they become active as THC and CBD. This occurs naturally over time and is accelerated in the presence of heat and light, especially ultraviolet light.

Once buds are dried and cured, potency is at its peak. Over time, THC gradually degrades to CBN, a far less psychotropic cannabinoid than THC. Research conducted at the University of Mississippi on low-quality cannabis stored for four years at room temperature (68-72°F, or 20-22°C) found that the percentage loss of THC was proportional to time in storage, with the greatest loss in the first year. As the THC level declines, the concentration of CBN increases.

High Times

This research is consistent with the experiences of marijuana users. Marijuana loses potency over time as the psychoactive THC converts to CBN, which induces sleep but not highness. Storing buds in the freezer or refrigerator slows deterioration. Freezing keeps buds fresh longest. However, even then THC deteriorates, at nearly 4 percent a year. In deep freeze (below 0°F), deterioration slows further. At refrigerator temperatures, THC deteriorates at the rate of a bout 5.4 percent a year. A freezer is best for long-term storage; a refrigerator is good for protecting terpenes in the short term. There are several problems with storing marijuana in a freezer, especially when super-cooled to 0°F (-18°C).

Even under higher temperatures in the freezer, glands become very brittle and are easily and inadvertently shaken off buds. For that reason, once placed in the freezer the container should be handled very gently, and when removed the buds should be given time to warm up so they become more pliable.

The moisture in the container freezes and can form ice crystals, especially during long storage. This may also occur when buds have not been dried sufficiently.

However, in several experiments, properly dried marijuana in a plastic container developed no ice crystals when placed in a freezer for several months. The trichomes remained intact. If moisture is a problem, vacuum sealing mostly eliminates it, although the process may result in crushed buds. Another solution is to remove the air with moisture-free gas such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. These can be injected into the container as the ambient air exits through another hole. Then both holes are sealed.

When freezing marijuana in glass containers, choose shoulderless containers, as shouldered containers are more likely to develop cracks. Metal and wood containers can also be used for freezing.

One way to store frozen marijuana is in small containers. Pack just enough for a week’s use in each container. The rest of the stored material is not disturbed, so the glands are not at risk, as they can be removed from the freezer individually.

According to the University of Mississippi study, refrigerator temperatures slow deterioration to a little less than 0.5 percent a month, which isn’t noticeable when storing for just a few months. Here, too, it is best if the bulk of the stored material is disturbed infrequently.

Heat and light, especially UV light, evaporate terpenes and erode quality. Only an opaque container will completely protect the terpenes, and therefore the quality of the buds stored inside. An opaque container with a white exterior reflects heat, keeping the contents cool. Using a desiccant packet that maintains a set humidity of about 60-65 percent ensures the proper level of moisture is retained without causing mold.

Terpene molecules vary in size, and the smallest ones evaporate at lower temperatures, starting in the high 60s. Buds kept at room temperature in an open container will experience some loss of terpenes. Storing buds in a refrigerator or freezer keeps terpenes in a liquid state, rather than gassing off.

Storing Materials

Cannabis can be properly stored in a number of different materials, each with pros and cons that make them more or less suitable depending on the grower’s needs.

Glass

Glass makes great, inert, hard, non-biodegradable storage containers. The downside is that most glass jars are clear, and light degrades trichomes—which doesn’t matter if buds are stored in the dark. For storing buds exposed to light, opaque glass is best. Different types of glass are used to store food. The color of the glass determines the type of light and heat that can penetrate the barrier.

Violet Glass

Violet glass blocks visible light with the exception of the color violet. It also is semi-permeable to UVA, an infrared light, allowing about 40-60 percent to penetrate, depending on the glass formula and thickness.

Miron Glass, a manufacturer in Germany, claims that this combination of light preserves biological material such as herbs as well as fresh vegetation. The company bases its claims loosely on bio-photons, which is very weak light emitted by all living things.

Its literature claims that even when material is dry, the light that penetrates the glass preserves this energy while forming a barrier to other visible spectrums that can cause deterioration of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Placing a glass or stainless-steel container in a dark space such as a refrigerator closet or dark room will also keep harmful light out. It is highly unlikely that there is much UVA light indoors, so none is passing through. However, visible light is filtered out.

In a controlled experiment, fresh garden tomatoes were placed in a Miron container, a stainless-steel container and a clear-glass container. All were sealed and the clear-glass container was kept entirely in the dark.

When the jars were opened a month later, the tomatoes were still fresh, if a little dehydrated. The containers were closed again and reopened a month later. All three tomatoes had begun molding at similar rates.

Stainless Steel

Stainless-steel tubs with plastic seals and flip-top locking mechanisms are popular because they’re strong and can be stacked. The metal does not interact with the buds and is impervious to outside air. Stainless-steel containers are an excellent choice for storage.

Plastic

Cannabis is slightly acidic and lipophilic, so it degrades some plastics. Plastics are stickier than glass or stainless steel. Odorless turkey bags are popular because they contain odors well and are inexpensive. However, they are easily pierced by stems and offer no protection from shaking and movement, which leads to more damage and shake. Five-gallon buckets sealed with toothed, locking airtight lids will protect buds from getting crushed and can be stacked.

Desiccants

A desiccant is a substance that removes moisture from the surrounding air. Desiccants are often found in certain food packages, like those for dried seaweed, and in electronics. Silicon packets, newspaper or anything extra-dry acts as a desiccant and absorbs moisture in a storage container.

Vacuum Sealing

Vacuum packaging is popular because it decreases the amount of oxygen present in a storage container. Oxygen is corrosive and degrades the buds’ color. A decreased presence of oxygen also discourages the growth of spoilage bacteria, but not anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in low- and no-oxygen environments that are damp and have food—the buds! Never seal and store wet or damp buds.

Gas-Based Storing

Gas-flushed, sealed Mylar bags are excellent packaging for long-term storage. The process flushes the bag with nitrogen and seals it. Unlike oxygen, nitrogen is inert and doesn’t burn. Purging packages of oxygen extends the life of the buds and prevents the growth of mold and discoloration, similar to vacuum sealing. Gas-purged bags are a cornerstone of consumer food-product packaging and are common in snacks like chips and jerky. Some testing labs offer nitrogen bagging services using tamper-proof packaging.

Storing Fresh-Frozen

Instead of being prepped and dried, marijuana can be made directly into concentrates or stored undried and “wet” frozen to be used later. This saves energy and labor. With storage, the conversion of the material can be postponed to a more convenient time. Either fresh or frozen buds can be used for bubble, or BHO. First, the chopped buds are brought to near-freezing temperatures. Then agitation from a paint mixer or other tool makes the glands brittle; they break off and are collected in a series of filters that catch different-size glands. When collected, the glands make hash, which can be used in a vaporizer or pipe or as an intermediate for making butane or C02 concentrate. BHO extractors use butane as a solvent to de-cannabinize and de-terpenize the leaf. The result is a very pure dabbable concentrate.

After the Harvest

After the harvest is complete, growers are left with a variety of byproducts. What used to be considered trash is now processed further and enjoyed or sold. The first step is to evaluate and separate the material.

The most efficient way is to sort it during trimming.

The quality of the remaining material is based on the percentage of THC and other cannabinoids it contains. Three types of growth remain after the buds have been removed: popcorn buds (larf), sugar trim and fan leaves.

Stems and woody parts of the plant are not suitable for ingestion since they contain few cannabinoids.

Grades of Trim

Popcorn Buds (Larf)

Buds that receive less light grow smaller and less dense. They are time-consuming to trim and cosmetically undesirable in the market. However, they contain a high percentage of THC and are often used to make pre-rolls or concentrates.

Sugar Trim

Sugar trim refers to the resin-covered leaves that grow near and often surround the buds. They are cut during manicuring and, other than the buds, contain the most THC in the plant. Sugar trim is used to make extracts such as kief, hash, tinctures and edibles.

Fan Leaves (Sun Leaves)

Although fan leaves contain a third or less of the cannabinoids as sugar trim, processing them may still be worthwhile. Leaves with visible glands are worth keeping. Leaves from immature plants typically have very few glands and do not yield much THC.

Use a magnifying glass or photographer’s loupe for a close-up look at the material. Fan-leaf glands are often small and hug the surface of the leaf, while glands near the flowers are stalked and look like mushrooms with bulbous caps. The latter contain considerably more cannabinoids than the smaller glands.

Male plants also contain cannabinoids. These cannabinoids are strongest at the budding, pre-flowering stage. The sugar leaves—small leaves near the flowers—are the most potent, followed by the younger and then the older fan leaves. Male plants are not prized for resin production and are often removed from the garden and destroyed.

  • To use fan leaves in cooking, gently heat them in butter or oil. Use the infused oil in salads or cooking.
  • Grind dried fan leaves into fine flour and substitute it for a small portion of regular flour in recipes. To remove the chlorophyll taste, soak the leaves in cool water before drying and grinding. The flour can also be used in making salves and poultices; an easy method is to mix it into an existing topical ointment.
  • Juice the fresh leaves. Start by rinsing them and then run them through a wheatgrass juicer. To store for later, pour the juice into ice cube trays and freeze it. The juice is ingested medically and for general health maintenance.

Stems and branches contain little to no usable THC. However, there are several ways to recycle them:

  • Chop and use as mulch
  • Use as fire kindling
  • Carve the large stems
  • Use as walking sticks
  • Use for craft projects such as papermaking
  • Chop finely for superior horse bedding or small animal litter

There are various ways to use the separated trim and maximize crop value. Trim, sugar leaves and popcorn buds can be converted to kief, hash, BHO, tinctures and cooking oils. For the purposes of this book, only safe, at-home extractions are covered. For more in-depth instructions and information on all post-harvest extractions, see the book Beyond Buds, Next Generation: Marijuana Concentrates and Cannabis Infusions, by Ed Rosenthal and Greg Zeman.

Kief

When the trichomes are separated from the plant material, they form a pale blond to green powder, known as kief. High-quality golden kief is consumed. Lower-quality green kief, which contains a lot of vegetation, is used for cooking or for further processing.

The blond glands are delicious when smoked fresh and loose and have a lighter, distinctively different flavor than the whole bud. They have not been heated, so the kief has a high concentration of terpenes. Some traditionalists insist that kief is best pressed into hash. It can also be sprinkled over a bowl or joint, or mixed in food. The simplest and most common method of making kief from sugar leaves or popcorn buds is by screening it.

Screening for Kief

Use a fine screen. The size of the openings in the screen determines what size glands and how much residual plant material passes through. The vigor used in rubbing the plant material over the screen has a profound effect on the quality of the final product. Rub gently. More debris is pushed through when the screening is vigorous. Also, sifting the same material a few times yields more kief, but each sift results in a higher proportion of plant mixed with the glands.

Kief or pollen-sifting boxes and screens are good tools for processing small personal-use amounts. They can be as simple as wooden stash boxes with a screen above a pullout drawer to catch the glands that fall off buds from normal handling. Other boxes are made specifically to capture different grades. Use cold buds and trim because cold causes the trichomes to become brittle and break more easily.

Automatic kief makers called Pollinators and pollen sifters use a tumbling action to rub leaves against a screen that separates the glands from the leaves. The rubbings are collected on a bottom plate.

Divide kief processing by time. The highest grade comes from the first minute of rubbing. The material degrades with each processing as the ratio of vegetation to glands increases.

How Water Hash Works

The most common water-hash processing method uses a combination of water, ice and agitation to separate glands from the plant material. Ice, water and plant material are placed in a bucket that has been lined with filtration bags with screens on the bottom similar to the screens used for making kief. The material is agitated to knock the trichomes free. Plant material is trapped and floats in the top bag while the glands, which are heavy, sink to the bottom and are collected in the bags.

Ready-made systems use multiple bags, usually three to seven with various size screens to sort the glands into grades. Unlike kief making, the material is separated in one step rather than through repeated sieving. Usually the material is processed once, although some commercial hashmakers process it a second time to capture more of the THC.

Ice serves a dual purpose: It acts as an agitator against which the plant material rubs, and it makes the material very cold so the glands become brittle. After the material is agitated in ice water, it is allowed to settle. Then the bags are separated, and the glands are removed from each one. They vary in content. Different-size glands have different effects. After water hash is dried, it is ready to smoke.

Water hash varies in color, much like kief. The finest grade is typically a light tan, while the coarser second-tier material is slightly darker and may be a little green from plant-material contamination.

Water hash can be made without bags. Agitate the material in ice and water for 20 minutes. A paint mixer attached to a motor or drill works well. After agitating, most of the plant material floats. Remove it using a colander and cooking spoon. Glands are heavier than water and detach from the vegetation. They sink to the bottom of the container where they form a gray or tan layer. Rinse them from the container and capture them in a coffee filter.

The quality of water hash, especially from the finest-grade material, is impressive. It can test as high as many solvent-extracted hash products: up to 80 percent, although 50 percent samples are more common. The effects produced by water hash depend on the strain and quality of the plants. Processing plant material with water yields hash that has been washed free of some contaminants: green plant matter, dust, dander and some mold, bacteria and chemicals. However, high counts of mold and bacteria are commonly found in tests of water hashes. Perhaps a final rinse in 1 percent hydrogen peroxide water will lower these counts.

Extraction yields 0.5 to 2 ounces (14-57 grams) of hash per pound of plant material, depending on gland density and size.


Book Excerpt: After The Harvest was posted on High Times.

Plant Growth Regulators: What They Are & Why You Should Avoid Them

Plant Growth Regulators: What They Are & Why You Should Avoid Them

Original Post: Cannabis Aficionado: Plant Growth Regulators: What They Are & Why You Should Avoid Them

[Canniseur: Everyone should read this story. Really. Whether you’re a grower or not, these Plant Growth Regulators can be carcinogenic in our smokable weed and in our extracts and concentrates as well. It’s serious. Serious enough that I believe that some growers in Michigan are using them as well as California and probably all the other states. A hard dense nug is NOT necessarily a good thing. I believe I reported on some nugs a few weeks ago that were ‘over manicured’ and dense. I believe the grower used PGRs. Another reason not to like this grower.]

The dark years of cannabis prohibition here in California created an innovative and highly competitive black market for weed that thrives to this day despite the state’s relatively progressive path toward legalization. Risk has always been high for illicit growers and their tactics to avoid the prying eyes of law enforcement have evolved over time. Decades ago, the use of helicopters and spotter planes to target pot farms forced growers to camouflage their cultivation, or in many cases, move it all the way indoors.

This radical change in the way cannabis was grown, particularly in Cali, led to a massive leap in quality control as indoor growers could now “play god” and manipulate all environmental conditions to their liking. However, it also led to a drastic drop in overall yields.

Remember, we are talking about the Nineties, so most of these were not yet warehouse-style grows. They were closets, garages, basements, and spare rooms for the most part and even though you could flip each room a few times per year, the overall weight harvested paled in comparison to the massive trees that could be grown outdoors.

With a limited footprint to grow in, and a limited canopy above (ie. the ceiling and lights), growers began looking for any way they could to boost the number of grams of finished buds that they could pull from each square foot of cultivation space.

For some, like our friend Josh D, that meant revolutionizing hydroponic grow systems and optimizing that method for cannabis production while at the same time introducing and perfecting the ultimate indoor strain — OG Kush. The optimal genetics of this iconic strain naturally produced shorter, bushier plants with massive, dense, and potent buds, making it ideal for indoor cultivation.

Not all growers were blessed with such genetics or know-how, though, and it didn’t take long for some of them to start to seek out some rather unsavory store-bought shortcuts to try to compensate for lackluster harvests.

Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs)

Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) date back well before the Nineties cannabis boom. First introduced to American agriculture in the 1920s, these chemical compounds were used for nearly half a century to either boost or slow down the natural rate of growth of plants through phytohormonal manipulation.

For example, groves of fruit or nut trees could be filled with shorter trees that yielded more produce thereby reducing the time and risk of harvesting and, in turn, increasing profits.

However, when independent lab studies showed that certain synthetic PGRs could potentially be carcinogenic, the FDA stepped in and banned the use of such products on consumable food crops in the 1970s.

Those products did not vanish, though. They continued to be used to keep trees at parks from growing too tall, or to make bouquets of grocery store flowers bloom brighter and grow at such uniform sizes and, as we know, to artificially boost cannabis yields. In fact, the global demand for PGRs has more than doubled in the past six years and now stands as a $6.4 billion sector of the agricultural industry.

Some growers are using this particular shortcut knowingly but many others may be pumping their pot full of PGRs without even knowing it as this controversial compound has been found (often unlabeled) in many popular brands of fertilizers and nutrients. If growers use those products and just so happen to see tighter, denser, and heavier nugs as a result… win/win, right? What’s wrong with increased yields and solid buds, anyway?

Guaranteed Mids

It’s no secret that, for the most part, the regulated cannabis market in California is flooded with mid-grade weed that is barely worthy of a blunt wrap for most seasoned smokers. The logistics of the supply chain and the way things have to be packaged in today’s market can mutilate even the best-grown buds by the time they reach the end-user but, sadly, most of the supply these days was pretty shoddy to begin with. We call it California’s “Mids Life Crisis”.

As many state-sanctioned cultivators struggle to stay afloat in the new legal market, too many are feeling the pressure of whatever deal they signed with the devil to fund their startup and are willing to do whatever it takes to make their numbers make sense. PGRs are the perfect tool for such an unscrupulous job.

Simply put, the way that PGRs boost cannabis yields is by pumping those nugs full of water at the cellular level which leads to the expansion. You are not boosting the vigor or potency of the plant, that added weight is literally moisture and cellulose. So while California cannabis testing labs are not required to flag samples for PGR levels, they will show lower overall THC levels – bigger buds do not always equal stronger buds.

So how can you tell if that herb you are inspecting at the dispensary has been treated with Plant Growth Regulators? Here are a few telltale signs to look for:

  • Buds that are extremely hard or dense in structure
  • Buds with an excessive amount of pistils, often matted or intertwined
  • Pistils often have more of a brown hue than the rusty orange seen on healthy buds
  • Distinct lack of visible developed trichomes
  • Lack of strain-appropriate aroma

Still unsure? Ask the budtender direct questions about it. Who grew it? Where was it grown? Research that feedback or pass on those products if that information is unknown. At the end of the day, it is our job as consumers to do the due diligence to ensure that what we put into our bodies is legit. Relying on any company or corporation to do that for you is naïve, particularly when it comes to the Wild West of legal weed.

Safety Meeting

Roughly a decade after the FDA banned the use of synthetic Plant Growth Regulators on crops meant for human consumption, the Environmental Protection Agency followed suit in the 1980s by placing even heavier restrictions on the use of certain PGRs and labeling them as environmental pollutants. The EPA warned that exposure to these synth PGRs could elevate a person’s risk of cancer 240 times higher than the acceptable standard.

That being said, many of those studies involved subjecting rats to astronomical levels of various PGRs in order to trigger negative reactions and there is no hard evidence that smoking weed treated with PGRs is much different than eating In n’ Out instead of a home-cooked burger. But, to us, it does matter and we will avoid synthetic PGR weed at all costs. We don’t want to smoke it, we don’t want to vape it, and we certainly have no interest in extracting it to create full-spectrum cannabis oil. Nothing about Plant Growth Regulators benefits the consumer, period.

Now, that’s not to say that all PGRs are bad news. In fact, there are many natural sources for Plant Growth Regulators that can be useful and healthy supplements for your fertilizer or nutrient base. But as a grower, you should feel obligated to thoroughly understand how they are sourced from nature and exactly how they work with the balanced chemistry of your plants before putting them to use. Failure to do so can take you from “Top Shelf” to “Midzotics” real quick!

Remember, fellow cultivators: If your SOP calls for more PGRs, then your QC is probably BS.

What’s Next?

Look for PGRs to make a major splash in the newly established American hemp marketplace as the importance of higher yields compounds dramatically at the large scale that those farms will be operating at. Combine that with the relative lack of lab testing requirements and Plant Growth Regulators figure to play a large role in helping the U.S. compete in the global market. American hemp is mandated by federal law to produce a ridiculously low 0.3% THC content, so the fact that PGRs murder trichomes only helps growers and manufacturers.

As for what role Plant Growth Regulators will play in the future of cannabis, that will likely come down to regulation since we see that there are too many growers who are willing to cut that corner when it is left up to them. At the very least, plant fertilizer and nutrient companies should be mandated by law to accurately list all ingredients and contents of their products. That way the growers who are trying to do the right thing can make informed decisions about how they treat their gardens, farms, and warehouse grows.

Finally, as consumers, we can speak with our hard-earned dollars. Quit buying PGR tainted buds! Tell your favorite dispensary that you aren’t interested in buying those products. If enough of us do exactly that, the free market will… ahem… weed out the PGR growers and those who push their products.

Beard Bros. Pharms has earned their reputation as a trusted source for cannabis news, content creation, and culture preservation. With decades of experience in cultivation and marketing, their fearless voice for the plant includes advocacy for veterans, inmates, people of color, and anyone else who has been oppressed by generations of cannabis prohibition. See what they’re up to now at BeardBrosPharms.com

The post Plant Growth Regulators: What They Are & Why You Should Avoid Them appeared first on Cannabis Aficionado.

Original Post: Cannabis Aficionado: Plant Growth Regulators: What They Are & Why You Should Avoid Them

Trichomes Are the Key to Most Potent Cannabis Flowers

Trichomes Are the Key to Most Potent Cannabis Flowers

Original Post: Cannabis Now: Trichomes Are the Key to Most Potent Cannabis Flowers

[Canniseur: It’s in the trichomes. The balance between THC, terpenes and other compounds in the trichomes is just being discovered. Trichomes are where all the good stuff in cannabis is made. This doesn’t necessarily mean that frostier buds are better. Frosty buds means there are a lot of trichomes. And not all are created equal. The frosty look to our favorite buds are finally being researched for what they are and science is discovering they’re not all created equal.]

For the diehard cannabis connoisseur, one whose only mission in life is the quest for the eternal buzz, tracking down that one marijuana strain that really kicks them in the boo-boo can be tough. It means visiting one dispensary after another, where, often, none of the staff ever seems willing to break out the secret stash from the back. And we know they’ve got one! So there is a lot of trial and error in this process. And this search for perpetual highness can also dwindle away at the old bank account, too, which really sucks, because it can be difficult to hold down a steady job when one’s life’s work consists of only hunting down the strongest marijuana in the land.

If only there were a way to determine the potency of a plant without having to dedicate so much time, money and lung power to the cause.

Well, it turns out there are some old school physical properties of a cannabis plant that are meant to tell us just how mighty the marijuana is before we ever put in our pipes and smoke it. A recent study published in the Plant Journal finds that the frostier the buds, the more likely it is for the pot to pack a punch.

These crystalized hairs (trichomes) that have been held in high regard for decades by marijuana aficionados are what produces the chemicals that give the plant all of its psychoactive and medical properties, the study, which was conducted by the University of British Columbia, has confirmed.

This means that the more tiny, mushroom-shaped fibers on the cannabis flower, the more cannabinoids are present. These frosty attributes, which are a defense mechanism to protect the cannabis plant from UV rays and animals, also give the plant its pungent aroma, the study finds. In other words, cultivators that are hellbent on producing the best, stickiest, stinkiest cannabis known to mankind are going to need to be well-versed in manufacturing plants that are abundant in trichomes.

“Despite its high economic value, our understanding of the biology of the cannabis plant is still in its infancy due to restricted legal access,” Teagen Quilichini, one of the study authors and postdoctoral fellow at UBC Botany told Science Daily. “Trichomes are the biochemical factories of the cannabis plant and this study is the foundation for understanding how they make and store their valuable products.”

For years, cannabis experts have focused on three trichomes: bulbous, sessile and stalked. Although science has had a pretty solid grip on the function of these components for a long time, little has been known, up until now, about their involvement in shaping the potential of this magnificent plant.

To come up with the latest findings, researchers used chemical profiling and microscopic techniques to get to the bottom of internal structures and individual trichomes. What they found was that all three emitted different colors when put to the test under ultraviolet light.

“We saw that stalked glandular trichomes have expanded ‘cellular factories’ to make more cannabinoids and fragrant terpenes,” said Sam Livingston, lead author and Ph.D. candidate at UBC Botany. “We also found that they grow from sessile-like precursors and undergo a dramatic shift during development that can be visualized using new microscopy tools.”

As the study points out, this ultraviolet testing method could be used in the cultivation process to monitor trichome maturity and ensure that harvests are made at the appropriate times.

Researchers also said that additional discoveries involving trichome DNA could revolutionize cannabis production.

“We found a treasure trove of genes that support the production of cannabinoids and terpenes,” said principal investigator Anne Lacey Samuels, a professor of botany at UBC. “With further investigation, this could be used to produce desirable traits like more productive marijuana strains or strains with specific cannabinoid and terpene profiles using molecular genetics and conventional breeding techniques.”

In the end, more details about how trichomes work will only serve to create better pot products for the consumer, the researchers said.

Trichomes Are the Key to Most Potent Cannabis Flowers was posted on Cannabis Now.

Dear Danko: Expert Grow Advice

Dear Danko: Expert Grow Advice

Original Post: High Times: Dear Danko: Expert Grow Advice

[Canniseur: Always good advice from Danny Danko. And lots of good practices even for budding growers. Growing cannabis isn’t easy. Even though it’s called weed and will grow wild, cultivation takes some attention. Adhere to these practices, even if your ‘growroom’ is just a closet or small cabinet and you’ll grow great cannabis.]

High Times’ cultivation specialist Danny Danko answers all your burning questions about being the best grower you can be. But first, some quick tips from the expert himself:

  • Root-bound plants in a coco or soilless mix should be transplanted into larger containers.
  • Keep your plant nutrients stored in light- and airtight containers in a cool, dark place instead of under lights in your growroom.
  • Change your clothing and shoes before entering your growroom to avoid bringing in pests.

Subject: Plant Labeling
From: Billy the Kidd

I keep my different strains labeled when I’m growing them, but what do you think is the best way to keep track of them while they’re drying? Keep in mind that I grow over a dozen different plants and smoke a ton of cannabis, so I can’t just remember where I hung everything up and in which order.

Dear Billy,

The best way to keep track is to attach a label to the plant or branch you’re drying. It’s best to move the branches around a bit in your drying space to ensure that everything dries evenly, and attaching a label will help you avoid any confusion later.

Each strain should be cured separately from any others in sealed glass jars. Different strains will require different rates of “burping” or opening the jars to release and replenish the air inside. Denser strains will take longer to cure than wispier ones.

Subject: Burned Tips
From: Jay Farmer

No matter what I do, I always get burned leaf tips! I’m following the instructions on my nutrient bottles (General Hydroponics’ three-part system) to a T, and yet I always have this issue. The buds end up tasting and smoking all right, but I know something is off when I see the tips turning brown and drying up.

Dear Jay,

You are overfeeding your plants. The recommended amounts listed on the labels of nutrient bottles tend to lean toward the maximum your plants can absorb, sometimes leading to slight overfeeding issues such as yours. Most nutrient companies want you to run out of plant food and return to the grow store to buy more.

My advice is to feed at half the rate recommended on the package or bottle unless you see signs of underfeeding. Better to err on the side of caution than to have to deal with the nightmare of overdoing it. You can always add more nutes, but it’s more difficult to remove them in case they over-accumulate. Also, be sure to water with plain pH-balanced water between feedings to give your plants a break. Follow these two simple rules and you’ll never see those dreaded burned tips again.

Subject: Send in the Clones
From: Curious Bones

I sent in a question a few weeks ago about the best way to sex some regular seeds, and although you haven’t answered it yet, I have come to the conclusion, based on another panel discussion on episode No. 49 of your podcast, that taking a cutting and sexing it is the way to go. I have never taken cuttings, and have always grown directly from seed. How long does it take a cutting to root? How soon will that newly rooted cutting flower?

Dear Curious,

In proper conditions, cuttings should root 5-10 days from when they were taken from the mother plant. In order for this to happen, you must keep your cloning chamber warm and humid (around 80°F; and 80 percent humidity). I recommend using a tray with a clear plastic dome under a bank of fluorescent lighting. Cut a hole about the size of a quarter in the clear plastic at either end of the tray to allow for some airflow, and you’ll see roots popping out of the bottom of your medium in a week or so.

If you’re flowering the cutting in order to determine the sex of the mother plant, you can begin flowering it as soon as the clone shows roots. You won’t get much to smoke off of it, but you’ll know the sex of the corresponding plant within a couple of weeks. Tiny yellow spikes that look like small bunches of bananas are a sign of male flowers, while white hairs emerging from a bulbous, teardrop-shaped calyx are indicative of females.

Subject: Slow and Low
From: Unhappy Dwarf

I have had a couple of plants turn out short with tiny leaves. One that I planted around December 1 is only about a foot tall. Another is about 18 inches tall with lots of leaves and branches. It should be 4-5 feet tall by now. Am I causing this, or were the seeds bad? Please help! Should I give up on them?

Dear UD,

Your plants’ lack of growth could be caused by several factors. First and foremost is light. They must receive enough light to perform photosynthesis and create new cells. If you’re growing outdoors, the plants need full, direct sunlight for at least 14 hours a day. Indoors, you need to ensure they’re getting enough lumens from your grow light, which should also be positioned close to the plants.

Your plants could also be suffering from a lack of food. Plants need nutrients to grow, and they eventually use up whatever might be present in their medium. You must provide them with a nutrient solution that will provide the macro- and micronutrients necessary for healthy growth.

The third factor is genetics. It doesn’t sound like you’re familiar with the strains you planted, and so they could have bunk genes. Seeds pulled out of a baggie of buds don’t tend to perform nearly as satisfactorily as well-bred F1 hybrids with hybrid vigor.

You don’t have to give up on your plants, but you should definitely change their situation by adding light and nutrients. If that doesn’t help, then you’ll know it was the seeds themselves that are to blame and you can move on to better genetics in the future.

Subject: Planting Seeds
From: Thomas G.

Should I germinate my seeds before I plant them? I’ve heard differing opinions, and I’d like to know the best way to get them started for optimal growth.

Dear Thomas,

Some people choose to use the moist-paper-towel method to germinate their seeds, but I recommend just sowing them directly into the medium you plan to grow in. This reduces any stress the seedling might suffer during the transplanting process and secures the young plant firmly into your chosen mix. It’s important not to plant too deeply (a quarter-inch deep is perfect) and to keep the medium moist and warm for the best germination success rate.

There’s nothing inherently wrong with using a moist paper towel, though, as long as you’re gentle with the emerging lap root and you don’t let it grow too long before planting. I prefer simply to start the plant in its own medium, which reduces the likelihood of damaging the tender young roots and shoots. Additionally, always keep your grow light close enough to your seedling so that it won’t stretch too much and become long and lanky.

Subject: Vegging Again
From: Gary

I’ve heard some very interesting things about growing that make me wonder. A friend of a friend claims she has clipped buds from her mature plant and returned it to an 18/6-hour day/night light cycle, and it started growing again. Have you ever heard about this? Is it a bunch of fertilizer?

Dear Gary,

Yes, it is absolutely possible to do this. It’s called re-vegging. After you’ve harvested most of your plant, leave some fan leaves on a few branches and place it under a vegging light cycle, and you’ll see new leaves and branches begin to develop after a week or two. This is a particularly good technique if you are trying to save a certain strain and the plant is your only genetic connection to it. Once enough leaves and branches have formed, take a clone from your re-vegged plant and root it in order to keep that strain in your motherplant library.

I don’t recommend re-vegging in order to re-flower the plant, however. The law of diminishing returns is at play, and while you will get some buds out of the plant, your yield won’t be worth the effort and time spent on accomplishing the task. You’re always better off starting with a fresh seedling or rooted clone than with a re-vegged plant. So consider re-vegging as a last resort to save particular genetic material, and not as a way to get a second harvest from the same plant.

Subject: Curled Leaves
From: Barry F.

Can [you] tell me why my leaves are curling under on my indoor pot plants?

Dear Barry,

There are several things that might be causing your leaves to curl under, but the most probable is water stress. Most likely, you are overwatering your plants. The other possibilities are over-fertilization, high temperatures or nutrient lockout caused by pH variation. Check your temperature, nutrient and pH levels; if all of them are within the proper parameters, then water stress is the likely culprit. Let your plants’ medium dry out between waterings and the symptoms should go away.

One last thing I should mention is that there are also plant viruses that cause leaves to curl under, but I’d have to see a photo to correctly diagnose that malady.

Subject: Bud Boosters
From: Glen J.

I have a few plants outside. The buds are really small and it’s starting to get cold. Is there any way to boost bud production before I’m forced to cut them due to frost?

Dear Glen,

While there is no way to get buds to grow any faster than they are genetically disposed to grow, there are a couple of things you can do to still harvest a decent crop. First, you can utilize some sort of greenhouse structure in order to extend your growing season.

A hoop house or small greenhouse can retain heat in cold-weather conditions and keep your plants safe from frost for at least a few weeks before it gets too cold. If the greenhouse is heated or attached to a heated residence, you can continue growing well into the winter.

You should also consider bringing your plants indoors to finish growing under grow lights. If the plants are in the ground, carefully dig them up, trying to avoid damaging the root system, and put them into containers that have drainage holes.

Send your cannabis-cultivation questions to deardanko@hightimes.com.

This feature was published in the May, 2019 issue of High Times magazine. Subscribe right here.

Dear Danko: Expert Grow Advice was posted on High Times.

8 Plant-Training Techniques Explained

8 Plant-Training Techniques Explained

Original Post: High Times: 8 Plant-Training Techniques Explained

Well trained plants yield far more than those left to their own devices/ Erik Biksa

[Canniseur: There many ways to trim and promote growth to create a larger crop. Different methods to promote plant growth are described in this article for an excellent primer.]

From basic to advanced, here are some methods that increase plant size and provide bigger yields.

Topping

Removing the main crown shoot of your growing tip will ensure that two new shoots will grow back in its place. Pinching out once will create two tops; pinching out twice will create four tops; and so on. This technique is as simple as cleanly removing the growth tip until a lighter, fleshy-colored part of the plant tissue is exposed.

This will heal over and then form new growth shoots. It is very important to create a clean cut to avoid “fimming” (see below). I personally like to use a clean pair of nail cutters and to really get in and cut as close as possible. When incorporating a screen into the garden, topping is essential in creating a symmetrical canopy base from which to work.

Benefits: A plant’s height is basically cut in half-instead of one tall plant, the plant is separated into two parts. With this technique, the growth hormone that is responsible for apical dominance-in which a plant’s central stem is dominant-is cut off and a new hormone is emitted that promotes lateral growth. When the canopy is pinched out until the plant is flat-topped and multi-branched, canopy control is at its maximum.

Topping plants out will produce a greater number of smaller-size colas, as opposed to a main cola with supporting side branches if left untrained. This technique is ideal for growers who have limited space and want to avoid tall, lanky plants, and those growing plants with long vegetative periods, as this technique will produce a vibrant plant with eight heads in about 4-5 weeks.

Fimming

When fimming, 80 percent of the crown shoot is removed, with a very small amount left behind. In response, the plant will cease to produce upper growth, focusing its energy on the rest of itself underneath the highest part where it has been fimmed. Growth at the low part of the plant, from the very base of the pot and each internode upward, will increase, creating a thicker-looking plant. To use this technique, simply take a pair of scissors and snip away three-quarters of the tip of the crown shoot of the main cola or on the top shoots of the supporting side branches. “Fimming” is short for “Fuck, I missed!” because the technique was discovered by accident.

Benefits: Plants will have time to focus on enhancing the growth tips that are below the fimmed shoot. The lowest buds will have a chance to catch up with the rest of the upper growth, so when the top shoot does grow back to normal, the entire plant has increased in size. Fimming can create really bushy plants, and it can help avoid weak-producing lower buds.

Super Cropping

This is my favorite technique for pushing my plants to the limit. It’s a hands-on high-stress method that involves breaking the inner cell walls of a branch by popping it between your fingers. When successfully performing this technique, you’ll be able to hear an audible snap as the plant’s inner walls collapse-or at least feel a change in the pressure inside the plant.

With young softwood plants, popping the center parts of each internode will suffice; however, with plants that are more woody, it’s much easier to twist and a bend, and there’s a quicker healing response.

Benefits: If you have ever seen a plant that has an almost-round, knuckle-shaped growth forming over a bent branch, it’s been super-cropped. Once the inner cell walls in a branch collapse, growth hormones are sent to the break.

The result is a hardwood, protective growth that will not only provide added support, it will also boost the plant’s vigor and ability to respond to stress. A plant that has been super-cropped will be noticeably stronger in terms of vigor, stature and overall yield.

Tie and Bend

Otherwise known as low-stress training (LST), this technique involves tying and bending certain parts of the plant at certain times to compel the canopy to grow symmetrically. This technique involves tying the plant down with string or metal cables and lowering the highest point of the crown shoot. The plant will respond with the rest of the growth tips now competing to produce the main cola. Through careful calculation and planning, a grower can simply use leverage to compel the plant to form into a short and stout bush in which the main cola is unidentifiable come flowering time.

Benefits: The benefit of LST is that the canopy will be round with heavy side branches. Additionally, as the plant grows sideways, the axillary shoots that would’ve once produced small flowering sites will not grow upward and toward the light.

The end result comes down to how many times the plant’s been tied down to create new vertical shoots. This technique is also very important when using a screen, and it’s a great way to make those once tiny nugs into main colas.


Screens provide a trellis for branches to fill/ Erik Biksa

Using a Screen

Referred to as screen of green or ScrOG, this technique involves the application of a screen or net to act as a trellis through which your upper canopy will grow while clearing away the lowest part of the plant below the screen, ensuring a maximum yield of symmetrical flowering sites.

This method requires longer vegetative times than other plant-training techniques, as selected shoots must be fed through the screen over the growing phase. Making a screen is as simple as laying chicken wire over a wooden frame, tying bamboo shoots together in a square formation or even using wire or pea netting.

Benefits: Using a screen not only allows the grower to be totally hands-on with his plants; it also allows those with very small plant counts to achieve large yields in a small grow space. The plants have no choice but to dedicate all their growth above the screen, resulting in no low-hanging schwag buds and improved air flow below the canopy.

Pruning

Getting rid of fan leaves and low-growing tips is something that all growers should consider doing, but only at the proper time. Plants use their energy on whatever growth there is, so knowing when to cut away and strip the parts that are less productive than the upper parts is important. Take a pair of scissors and, as if you were taking clones, cut away the lowest growth of the plant that will take away from the prize buds you desire.

You should cut away everything from side branches to big healthy fan leaves. A good rule of thumb is to remove around 60 to 70 percent of the growth from the base of pots upward. You can also use your finger and thumb to strip away from the branches. Be vigilant to check for any new growth forming where the pruning took place.

Benefits: During the flowering stage, plants will exhibit the lollipop effect, where the main central stem has been stripped bare under a healthy, vibrant top canopy.

If you don’t prune the lowest parts of the plants, you’ll always struggle with the low-producing, light-deprived growth.

By clearing away a large proportion of the lowest plant parts, you can be assured that during the blooming phase the plant’s energy is being used as efficiently as possible and is focused on the heavy nugs on top. Pruning can make a big difference in the overall production of a cannabis plant, ranging from flower size to overall consistency.

Mainlining

This technique is slightly more complicated than traditional low-stress training, and it focuses solely on symmetrical plant growth. The principle behind mainlining is to remove the top shoot and all of a plant’s lower growth to create a bare stem. This allows the two axillary shoots to grow upward to form two primary shoots. If you picture a capital-Y shape and then grow from this starting figure, you can then tie the two shoots down to allow them to grow in a letter-T figure.

Benefits: Although it can seem like a very stressful training method and can certainly feel counterproductive, the important thing is to stick with it. Due to a carefully arranged symmetrical design, the plant will send signals to each pathway to make sure that each bud flowers and grows the same as all the others. The end result can be very impressive, but keep in mind that this method is for more experienced gardeners and requires much patience.

Strip and Flip

This method involves pruning away everything underneath the top internode of the plant’s branches a few days before flowering. This focuses all the plant’s energy into the remaining nodes. A full-scale prune can be quite drastic, and it’s the last thing anyone would do to their precious plants, yet this technique works. What’s left is a very skinny-looking structure with only one top shoot, but when it flowers it grows quite top-heavy.

Benefits: This technique removes the risk of any lower-producing popcorn nugs, provides an excellent opportunity to take some healthy cuttings for future grows, improves air flow and reduces insect and pest infestations. The flowers that the plant produces will be thick and dense. The end result will be uniform nugs that are each around 3-5 inches in size with substantial biomass.

Using proper techniques, growers can produce plenty of flowers with fewer plants/ Erik Biksa

Top Tips on Plant Count

Large Plants

Growing large-size plants that take up quite a bit of room requires long vegetative periods to produce as much productive foliage as possible. One can argue about which method produces larger yields: one large plant or many smaller plants under the same grow light. My tip here is to dedicate a grow tent for one or two very large plants. Avoid vegging many plants in a tent as they’ll fight for light and overshadow one another as blooming commences.

Light Output

You may have purchased a 10-pack of the latest and greatest genetics, and although you calculate that planting 9 seeds under a 600-watt lamp will result in a 9-ounce yield, it really depends on the integrity of your lighting setup. Grow lights are measured in lumen count and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). My tip here is to find out the amount of PAR your lights are emitting, then work out if it’s adequate enough to produce heavy-yielding plants.

Sea-of-Green Method

This method requires very short vegging times and a quick introduction to flowering.

The principle behind SOG is to grow as many small plants as possible in a limited space. The turnaround time may be a week longer than the flowering period for commercial growers. Make sure the strain you’re growing is well suited for a SOG grow (such as a short-flowering /nd/’ca-dominant variety) to make the process as straightforward as possible.

Strain Selection

There are many varieties of cannabis on the market these days, each displaying traits of indica, sativa or a mixture of both. Growing indica-dominant varieties will allow a grower to produce smaller-size plants. Hybrids can extend taller, and saf/Va-dominant strains will tend to stretch out even more. My tip here is to learn as much as possible about the strain you’re growing. It can determine a short or long vegging period, as well as if SOG or ScrOG is the right method to use.

Skill Level and Experience

If you’re new to growing cannabis, it’s better to grow a few smaller-size plants at first to learn the ways of the plant. If you’re more experienced, then generally having a larger plant is the norm, and the level of plant training that can be provided will result in a huge difference in terms of canopy control and final yield. A shorter vegetative time is more forgiving to the beginner, providing less time

to make catastrophic mistakes. Grow according to your skill level in terms of plant count, strain selection and nutrient use.

Budget

Your plant count and vegging time may be limited due to your budget; for example, electricity costs soar during the longer 18-hour lights-on periods. You may also be limited in nutrients and prefer to flower as soon as possible to save more during the growing stage. You may also be restricted to pot size, lighting capacity and many other things due to financial restrictions, so plan ahead to spend and grow within your time and financial constraints.

Vegging Room

For growers who have a vegging tent and a flowering tent, growing larger plants is probably not necessary, as a constant rotation of smaller-size plants is beneficial and practical. Invest in a tent solely for growing seedlings and clones until they are mature enough to be transferred to the flowering tent.

With the above options for training your plants, you’ll be able to find a technique that is well-suited for your individual space, time and financial considerations. Experiment and have fun-when harvest time comes around you’ll have some dank nugs to celebrate with and begin to plan your next grow!

Originally published in the March, 2019 issue of High Times magazine. Subscribe right here.

8 Plant-Training Techniques Explained was posted on High Times.

Starting to Homegrow? Here’s What to Look for in a Cannabis Grow Shop

Starting to Homegrow? Here’s What to Look for in a Cannabis Grow Shop

[Canniseur: I you want to grow your own, you’ll need supplies. Here’s a good guide to what you should be looking for in a grow shop. It’s kind of like home brewing your beer. You need some equipment to be able to grow your best plants possible.]

With most types of gardening, you can get everything you need, soil, fertilizer, tools, solid growing advice, and the plants themselves, from one spot—a nursery. Cannabis, however, is anything but one-stop shopping.

Deciding to grow is a big decision in and of itself and finding the right resources to nail the experience can be challenging. Plus, if you’re growing indoors, you’ll have even more factors to think about.

Here’s what to consider when looking for your cannabis supplies and a tribe of mentors.

Original Post: Leafly: Starting to Homegrow? Here’s What to Look for in a Cannabis Grow Shop

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