WTF Is the “Stoned Ape Theory”?

WTF Is the “Stoned Ape Theory”?

Original Post: Merry Jane: WTF Is the "Stoned Ape Theory"?

[Canniseur: This article got me to thinking about all the stoned cultural books and articles I’ve read, including “The Teachings of Don Juan”. These have formed my thinking about psychedelic experiences. This article is a very interesting read.]

Did early humans evolve into the geniuses we are today because they experimented with psychedelics? That’s what one theory claims, though most experts consider it pseudoscience.

In a time long before recorded history — perhaps as far back as 100,000 years ago — early hominids, the ancestors of today’s humans, may have evolved smarter, faster brains because they regularly tripped balls.

I’m not making this up. This is an actual hypothesis by Terrence McKenna, one of America’s most influential psychonauts.

McKenna studied ecology, conservation, and shamanism at the University of California-Berkeley’s Tussman Experimental College. Some of the West’s first exposure to the psychedelics DMT and ayahuasca came from his early writings.

A Crash Course on the Stoned Ape Theory

McKenna’s 1992 book, Food of the Gods, first proposed what’s referred to as “the stoned ape theory.” One of our early ancestors, Homo erectus, began eating Psilocybe cubensis — a psychedelic mushroom — as part of their diet. Psilocybe cubensis is often found growing under cow poo, so the theory suggests that hunter-gatherer groups would follow herds, then stumble on the shrooms left in the herds’ wake. Easy pickins, right?

As Homo erectus kept tripping, hominid society became richer and more complex, eventually turning the mushroom-eating into a religious ceremony. There is some evidence that suggests psilocybin can also enhance visual awareness — which would make hunting more efficient — and that it can stimulate sexual arousal, facilitating greater reproduction of babies.

Then, continued ingestion of psilocybin began to fundamentally alter the structures of the early humans’ brains, forming new, vast neural connections where none previously existed. From there, Homo erectus developed art, music, language, poetry, and philosophy. As the species evolved into cultural creatures, accustomed to living in relatively comfortable societies with plenty of foraged and farmed resources, Homo erectus morphed into a new species, Homo sapiens.

Psychedelics and Altering the Brain

Cool story, bro. What’s the evidence?

To be frank, the evidence for the stoned ape theory is scant. Anthropologists, historians, and paleontologists don’t take McKenna’s far-out human-origin theory seriously, namely because it’s not based on much besides the fact that ancient people liked to get high. It probably doesn’t help that the stoned ape theory’s most well-known cheerleader today is podcaster Joe Rogan.

But let’s entertain the theory for a second.

Psilocybin becomes another chemical, psilocin, after being metabolized in the human body. Psilocin is actually what makes us trip, not psilocybin. We know that psilocin pushes our serotonin activity, and serotonin — get this — can permanently alter our genes through a process called epigenetics. And the altered genes can be passed down to offspring, for better or worse.

We also know that psilocin changes the way our brain communicates with itself. Basically, the molecule forces our neural network to expand, temporarily connecting all parts of the brain with itself and the body. This cognitive synthesis is likely how artists birth new ideas while in the throes of a mushroom trip, or why some scientists claim that microdosing psychedelics helps them solve technical problems.

Unfortunately, that’s about where the hard evidence stops. We’ve never observed someone forming entirely new brain structures because they tripped their face off every weekend. And while heavy drug consumption can change our gene expression, there’s no evidence showing that getting high all the time can transform us into a new, more intelligent species.

What’s the Point of the Stoned Ape Theory, Then?

McKenna wove a fascinating story, but he had a political agenda, too. As a psychedelics guru, McKenna believed that the War on Drugs was wholly unjust, and that when governments outlaw psychedelics, they’re not trying to protect us from potentially harmful substances. They’re trying to control our consciousness.

To get the public to lighten up on liberalizing drug laws, McKenna anticipated his stoned ape theory would cause a paradigm shift, to get voters and lawmakers to see psychedelics as inherently beneficial instead of as dangerous molecules. That get’s him an A for effort in our book.

Follow Randy Robinson on Twitter

Original Post: Merry Jane: WTF Is the "Stoned Ape Theory"?

That Study Where Mice Died From CBD Is Bullshit

That Study Where Mice Died From CBD Is Bullshit

Original Post: Merry Jane: That Study Where Mice Died From CBD Is Bullshit

[Canniseur: Here’s an example of some “Reefer Madness” science. In my mind, I see these mad scientists running around in their white lab coats and having a good laugh at their research, since that’s what we should do. Laugh. Laugh at the stupidity of this study. If these ‘scientists’ had used milk at these doses, of course they’d kill mice. Then I could go out and yell; “Milk KILLS. Milk KILLS Milk KILLS. The doses they fed the mice (and they are mice), were so high, it would have killed anything]

A recent study from the University of Arkansas, where mice died after being given CBD, may change the public’s perception of CBD. But probably not.

The study dosed mice on CBD to see what would happen to the little guys’ livers. Some of these mice died within 24 hours of being administered CBD, which prompted frightening headlines such as “Marijuana Study Finds CBD Can Cause Liver Damage” and “New Mouse Study Finds Level of Liver Toxicity for CBD.”

Should we start saying no to CBD? Before we ditch those hemp pre-rolls that can’t even get us lit, let’s look at how the study was conducted.

Because mice are much smaller than humans, the researchers “allometrically scaled” the doses so they were proportional to human doses. The thing is, the researchers scaled the doses in the wrong direction.

Dose scaling was based off the “maximum recommended human maintenance” amount for Epidiolex in human patients, the first and only FDA-approved CBD drug derived from cannabis. That dose is 20mg/kg. So we’d expect the dose for the mice to be much, much smaller, somewhere in the range of 0.3mg/kg.

The researchers instead dosed the mice on 0, 246, 738, or 2460mg/kg. Yeah, you read that correctly: at the higher end, the mice got 120 times the recommended dose for a full-grown human being.

So no shit the mice got liver damage and died.

The University of Arkansas study pulled the same kind of bad science we saw back in the 1970s, when Dr. Heath erroneously (and unethically) concluded that marijuana caused brain damage in rhesus monkeys — after forcibly suffocating the poor simians with weed smoke.

To the Arkansas researchers’ credit, their study does offer additional evidence that CBD can wreck the liver and potentially compromise people with hepatic diseases or who rely on medications to stay alive. But that’s not exactly news. Earlier this month, during the FDA’s public hearing on CBD, several doctors and toxicologists testified that CBD could cause health complications in certain people, especially at high doses.

Even the Arkansas study’s lead researcher, Igor Koturbash, admitted to this previous knowledge in an interview.

“If you look at the Epidiolex label, it clearly states a warning for liver injury,” he told Nutra Ingredients USA. “It states you have to monitor the liver enzyme levels of the patients. In clinical trials, 5 percent to 20 percent of the patients developed elevated liver enzymes, and some patients were withdrawn from the trials.”

Furthermore, although rodent studies are useful for determining a drug’s toxicity, mice aren’t humans. They have different physiologies and different metabolic systems than us. They don’t process drugs the same way humans do, and, to date, there have been no recorded instances of someone dying because they chugged a liter of CBD mocktail.

What’s the takeaway here? Besides exposing the University of Arkansas’s shoddy scientific methods, we should probably think twice before infusing every ingredient of every meal with CBD (along with slathering ourselves in CBD lotions, soaps, shampoos, face masks, creams, and underarm deodorants). Having too much of a good thing is real, even when it comes from cannabis.

But don’t blindly buy into the Reefer Madness-esque hype, either.

Follow Randy Robinson on Twitter

Original Post: Merry Jane: That Study Where Mice Died From CBD Is Bullshit

New York Weed Arrests Are Up for People of Color, But Down for White Residents

New York Weed Arrests Are Up for People of Color, But Down for White Residents

Canniseur: Why am I not surprised at this? Because the intentional and unintentional bias toward people of color by their own police forces. Cannabis is decriminalized in New York, but arrests of people of color are up. Racial profiling is pervasive and we need to stop it now. It will take a generation though. That’s life.]

In 2018, cops in Upstate New York charged twice as many black people for low-level weed offenses than they did in 2016, illustrating that racially-biased policing is still a pervasive issue.

Despite the public’s rising acceptance of legal weed, and the increasing liberalization of cannabis laws, police are still targeting black and Latinx Americans for low-level pot offenses.

New police data from Albany and Schenectady counties — New York state’s Capital Region — highlights that weed arrests for black and Latinx Americans went up over the last few years, while arrests for white residents went down for the same crimes.

“Nothing has changed in terms of what we are hearing on the street,” Alice Green, the executive director at the Center for Law and Justice, told the Times Union. “People are still being stopped and arrested.”

For instance, in 2018, police in New York’s Capital Region charged twice as many black people for low-level weed offenses than they did in 2016, reported the Times Union.

The data shows that weed arrests across all racial demographics began dropping in 2009, five years before the state legalized medical marijuana. From 2011 to 2012, weed arrests for white and black people decreased slightly, while arrests for “Other” ethnicities went up.

Then something changed between 2016 and 2017, when arrests across all races increased. But the trend dramatically reversed from 2017 to 2018 — around the same time New York lawmakers were seriously discussing legalizing recreational weed — with the arrest rate for white people plummeting and arrests for black people soaring.

The data contradicts Albany’s drug policy. Last year, Albany District Attorney David Soares said he would stop prosecuting anyone charged with possessing less than two ounces of weed. Yet since January, Albany police arrested dozens of people for holding less than two ounces, and, not surprisingly, almost all of them were black or Latinx.

“The Albany Police Department routinely analyzes and assesses data to ensure that operations are consistent with contemporary best practices,” said Albany Police Chief Eric Hawkins in a press release. “We are currently conducting such an assessment with respect to the latest data regarding marijuana arrests.”

The easy solution, of course, would be for the cops to stop charging people — regardless of ethnicity — for holding less than two ounces of marijuana. Y’know, like the District Attorney ordered.

Things aren’t much better in the Big Apple, either. Last year, a report showed that 9 out of 10 people arrested by the NYPD for low-level weed offenses were black or Latinx.

New York certainly isn’t the only state to see the War on Drugs’ bullshit continue in an age when most Americans favor some form of cannabis legalization. Last month, a study found that weed arrests for black Washingtonians doubled after the state legalized in 2014. Previous studies have shown arrest and citation rate disparities for black and Hispanic people in Colorado after 2014, too.

This article first appeared in Merry Jane as New York Weed Arrests Are Up for People of Color, But Down for White Residents

Recreational Weed Hurts Medical Cannabis Programs, Study Finds

Recreational Weed Hurts Medical Cannabis Programs, Study Finds

[Canniseur: This is not surprising given the difficulty in obtaining a medical card in many states. Real medical cannabis patients, who are benefiting from the plant, may be doing themselves a disservice by not staying in the medical part of cannabis in adult use legal markets. Lapsed patients are finding higher prices and a lack of what they need (like Rick Simpson Oil) in the adult-use dispensaries. Patients should go back to medical cannabis dispensaries and states should make it easier to get a medical card.]

Recreational cannabis may be great for creating jobs and keeping folks out of prison, but liberal weed laws may be hurting the people who benefit most from cannabis: the patients.

Recreational marijuana laws lead to a sharp decline in state-registered medical cannabis patients.

A new report from the Associated Press found that when a state legalizes recreational pot, up to half of the state’s registered marijuana patients drop out of the program. Although the reasons for this weren’t clear, the report’s authors suspected it could be due to medical registrations being “the only way to buy marijuana legally” before recreational legalization, ABC News reported.

So, naturally, once a state legalized recreational weed, patients who simply wanted to get lit — and stay out of jail — no longer felt like they needed to buy from their state’s medical market.

Some state medical programs got hit harder than others. For example, Oregon, the most extreme case, saw its medical marijuana registry fall by two-thirds after legalization. The slump triggered a widespread closure of medical pot shops, as Oregon went from 400 medical dispensaries to just two since launching recreational weed sales.

Alaska, Nevada, and Colorado also saw marijuana patients exiting their medical programs shortly after legalization, with drops of 63 percent, 40 percent, and 19 percent, respectively.

California, the US’s largest cannabis market, wasn’t included in the AP’s analysis because the Golden State doesn’t keep data on its marijuana patients. Washington State and Maine were also excluded for the same reason.

And while the media lauds legal cannabis as an economic panacea, the market shift from medical to recreational hasn’t benefited some chronically or debilitatingly ill patients.

“Some of the products that these patients have relied on for consistency — and have used over and over for years — are disappearing off the shelves to market products that have a wider appeal,” David Magone, the director of government affairs at Americans for Safe Access, told ABC News.

The price differences between recreational and medical pot products are negatively impacting patients, too. Severely ill patients, such as those suffering from cancer or AIDS, require large quantities of cannabis to manage their symptoms. In California, an ounce of weed, according to one patient, only cost $35 for medical patients. That same ounce on the recreational market costs $100.

In Oregon, a cancer patient was forced to grow his own weed and make his own cannabis oil, since purchasing the same oil from a recreational pot shop – at $60 a gram, his daily dose – would be unfeasible today.

“Patients have needs. Consumers have wants,” Anthony Taylor, a member of the Oregon Cannabis Commission, told ABC News. “Patients are in crisis right now.”

From Merry Jane Recreational Weed Hurts Medical Cannabis Programs, Study Finds

Could Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome Be the Cause of IBS and Migraines?

Could Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome Be the Cause of IBS and Migraines?

[Canniseur: This could be groundbreaking. There are now two large systems in our bodies that we know almost nothing about. The endocannabinoid system and the interstitium, a new organ that was described earlier this year. Why shouldn’t the endocannabinoid system in our bodies be subject to all the ills and foibles of the other systems in our bodies? It will be interesting to find out if a lack of endocannabinoids is partly responsible for many of the diseases outlined in this article.]

A small group of scientists and doctors believe a lack of endocannabinoids could explain the causes behind little-understood medical conditions like fibromyalgia, IBS, and migraines.

Cannabis seems to treat an impressively wide range of medical conditions, from chronic pain to eating disorders to depression to cancer. Researchers suggest that weed may appear to be a universal panacea — a miracle drug, if you will — because the plant’s compounds may help maintain our body’s endocannabinoid system.A refresher: The endocannabinoid system is a physiological system like the respiratory system or the nervous system. Although scientists only discovered it about three decades ago, it may be one of — if not the —  most important developments in medical history.The endocannabinoid system regulates our body’s homeostasis, a state of harmonic balance where everything works as it should. It’s also key to our nervous system’s ability to communicate with other cells, tissues, and organs. Learning, memory formation, appetite, immune response, and healing are all controlled by the endocannabinoid system. Think of it as the part of our bodies that connects the brain with everything else, both inside of us and out in our surrounding environments. Without this system, the evolution of ‘higher’ lifeforms likely wouldn’t have happened (at least, not according to our current understanding of biology).1559590999679_dc57d8c83e7bcbb1cc9ba794c4b49d55.jpg“We all have an endocannabinoid system,” said Robert Melamede, PhD, during a recent talk at Harvard University. Melamede is a molecular biologist and cannabis activist who’s served as a scientific advisor to NORML and other cannabis advocacy groups.“The miracle of this is that the endocannabinoid system regulates everything in your body — immune, digestive, cardiovascular, skin, bone, reproductive — from your conception until your death.”To self-regulate the endocannabinoid system, our bodies naturally produce chemicals called endocannabinoids (endo- for “inside” and –cannabinoid for “related to cannabis”). Two of the most studied endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG, which interact with the same cannabinoid receptors on our cells that plant cannabinoids such as THC and CBD also act on.

Cannabinoids bind to cell proteins called cannabinoid, or CB, receptors. CB receptors act as locks on a cell, and cannabinoids essentially unlock them to trigger cell signaling. One of these receptors, CB1, mainly resides in the nervous system. Another receptor, CB2, can be found in the spleen and on immune cells.

THC, the cannabis compound that gets people stoned, binds tighter to CB1 receptors in the brain than it does to CB2 receptors in the immune system. This may be why THC couch-locks tokers and CBD doesn’t.

If we take this model a step further, anandamide may be our body’s version of THC, whereas 2-AG could be the body’s version of CBD. How do we know? Anandamide and 2-AG both bind to the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but anandamide binds better to CB1 (like THC) and 2-AG binds best to CB2 (like CBD).

Raphael Mechoulam, PhD, the “godfather of cannabis science” who first isolated and characterized THC in the late 1960s, believes anandamide behaves just like THC in the body. He suspects that anandamide, administered in the correct amounts, could even generate a “high” identical to THC’s, though, to date, no human subjects have been given pure anandamide to test this out.

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According to one neurologist, certain medical conditions — namely fibromyalgia, migraines, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) — share one thing in common: the patients typically exhibit low endocannabinoid levels. Furthermore, these three conditions are comorbid, meaning patients diagnosed with one usually have another, if not all three.

In 2001, while working as a scientific advisor to GW Pharmaceuticals, Dr. Ethan Russo first proposed what he calls “clinical endocannabinoid deficiency,” or CECD, in a paper about migraines. In recent years, this term started going by another name, “endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome,” or ECDS (Russo prefers the former). Both terms refer to the same hypothetical condition.

What is endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome, and what are its symptoms? Many of the details are still being worked out, but chronic pain, rampant inflammation, insomnia, fatigue, depression, lack of appetite, and irritability are common issues associated with it.

Rather than being a disease that always triggers a specific set of symptoms, ECDS may manifest differently among patients, depending on their environments, lifestyles, diets, and genetic make up.

But what if there’s more to this? What if these various maladies are all connected somehow? And what if cannabis, by restoring endocannabinoid function, could successfully treat conditions caused by low endocannabinoid levels, conditions that have proven difficult, if not impossible, to control through conventional medicine?

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A Medical Diagnosis Based on the Body’s ‘Natural Marijuana’

Initially, Russo suggested that migraines could be caused by low anandamide levels in the brain. Because sharp, throbbing pains always accompany migraines, research suggests a pain-killing compound like anandamide could keep them at bay. Both anandamide and THC — the intoxicating part of cannabis — activate the endocannabinoid receptors in our nerves. In other words, migraine patients who consume marijuana may be self-medicating by adding the plant’s version of anandamide back into their bodies.

Since Russo first proposed endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome, its related disorders expanded to include several other ailments. And their causes have eluded medical science, not unlike fibromyalgia and IBS. But given news that medical schools didn’t teach their students about the endocannabinoid system until the last few years, is the medical community even aware of this syndrome?

“There’s an awareness of this condition, and it is getting noticed. And there’s a good deal of research that’s been done on it,” Russo told MERRY JANE over the phone. “What’s happened in the ensuing 18 years [since proposing ECDS/ECDS] is we’ve gradually built up objective evidence showing that people with some of these syndromes [like IBS or fibromyalgia] do have differences between their endocannabinoid content either in their blood or in the cerebrospinal fluid in their brain.”

Russo cited a few eye-opening studies that back him up. One 2013 paper looked at people diagnosed with PTSD shortly after witnessing (or outright experiencing) the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York. Serum analysis showed these patients produced less anandamide and 2-AG, which are both crucial for regulating stress responses.

Additional studies confirmed that constant stress dulls the endocannabinoid receptors from responding to chemical signals, which may explain why the body reduces its anandamide and 2-AG production when life gets extremely difficult.

Researchers have also detected abnormal endocannabinoid function in people with autism spectrum disorder, some cancers, motion sickness, and epileptic seizure disorders. These conditions, like migraines, can be treated with cannabis, too.

How does ECDS explain these disorders, and how can cannabis treat them? Let’s take a look at one endocannabinoid deficiency-related condition, irritable bowel syndrome, to get a better understanding of how cannabis could treat it on multiple levels.

 

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IBS and ECDS: How Are the Conditions Related?

Irritable bowel syndrome or irritable bowel disorder is a common ailment that affects anywhere between 25 million to 45 million Americans. Two-thirds of IBS patients are female, and the condition appears in patients across all age groups.

IBS’s symptoms include bloating, digestive inflammation, rampant flatulence, upset stomach, diarrhea at random hours (especially in the middle of the night), constipation, ulcers, and a hypersensitivity to all sorts of everyday foods and food additives. Untreated, IBS can lead to anemia, iron deficiency, or dehydration.

The symptoms of IBS have been thoroughly identified, but how it happens remains a mystery. Doctors know that genetics, immune response, serotonin dysregulation, and the digestive system’s microbiota all play a role. But to what extent these factors influence IBS, and how they’re all connected, is unknown.

Enter a new perspective on IBS, one viewed through the lens of ECDS.

According to Russo, the endocannabinoid system regulates every level of IBS, from anti-inflammatory signals to serotonin signaling to maintaining the delicate balance of bacteria in the gut. Traditional medicine takes an inefficient approach to dealing with IBS. Doctors typically treat it by prescribing drugs for its various symptoms: a pill to reduce the gas and bloating, another pill to reduce inflammation, another pill to reduce gastric acid, another pill to make the ulcers go away, a laxative for constipation, and so on.

Yet, if ECDS can explain why IBS even happens, then consuming some cannabis could both replace all those pills and correct the condition’s root cause, a dysfunctional endocannabinoid system.

 

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Medical syndromes, like the proposed ECDS, are not disease-states in and of themselves. Rather, they describe a set of symptoms that share underlying causes, usually genetic in nature. Since the genetic science behind endocannabinoid activity is still in its infancy, endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome remains hypothetical. Doctors can’t diagnose it because it’s not officially recognized by the big-name medical associations.

If the science pans out, and Russo’s hypothesis is proven correct, then cannabis could be one of the most prevalent and effective medicines for treating ECDS and its related conditions. Depending on where the research takes us, it’s possible that cannabis breeders could produce new marijuana strains tailored to endocannabinoid-deficient conditions like fibromyalgia or IBS.

Of course, pharmaceutical companies will want in on the game, too. (Just kidding: They’re already in the game.) Pharmie-grade mixtures of less common cannabinoids — like CBG, CBN, or THCV — could alleviate the chronic symptoms of fibromyalgia, migraines, IBS, or other issues related to ECDS that conventional pharmaceuticals have failed to treat.

And it’s also possible that new drugs or designer weed may not be necessary for avoiding some endocannabinoid deficiencies. Researchers like Robert Melamede believe endocannabinoid deficiency can be prevented by adding more omega-3s and plant-derived cannabinoids to one’s diet.

“We should view cannabis not as a medicine, but as an essential nutrient,” Melamede said during the Harvard lecture. “Every illness that cannabis helps reflects a nutritional deficiency.”

Supplementing a balanced diet with omega-3s helps the body produce more endocannabinoids — which is why doctors and health-nuts promote omega-3s, even if they don’t know why, exactly. Omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in avocados, coconut oil, grass-fed beef, and fish, are the precursors to our own endocannabinoids. Our body basically makes its own weed from healthy fats.

But the body can only produce so many endocannabinoids at a time, regardless of how many fish oil capsules you pop. For those who suffer from persistent endocannabinoid deficiencies, consuming cannabis could make up for the gaps, since the cannabinoids in cannabis could, potentially, supplement the body’s life-sustaining endocannabinoids.

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What Would It Take for ECDS to Become a True Diagnosis?

So let’s assume that ECDS is a real thing. How would medical scientists get the syndrome into medical textbooks?

“There’s abundant evidence now, but it’s not widely recognized or necessarily accepted by the medical community,” Russo said. Achieving said recognition may prove difficult, as he described the same medical community as one “which has managed to ignore a lot of high-quality work on cannabis-based medicines.”

As an example of American medicine’s denial of marijuana’s therapeutic potential, Russo mentioned Marinol, a synthetic THC formulation used to treat spasticity and nausea. Marinol doesn’t contain THC extracted from the cannabis plant. Rather, its active ingredient is a purely artificial, human-made version of THC. The drug, which received FDA approval in the early 1990s, is currently classified as a Schedule III drug, whereas plant-derived THC remains at the most-restrictive category of Schedule I. This is despite the THC in Marinol being nearly identical, chemically, to the THC found in cannabis.

“To be honest,” he continued, “given the availability of Marinol in the US, a prerequisite to [getting ECDS recognized] would be clinical trials showing safety and efficacy [of cannabinoid-based medicines]. That’s what most physicians would accept.”

In other words, if you’re waiting to get a medical cannabis recommendation for ECDS, you might have to wait a few years. Or more. With the exception of experimental drugs admitted into the FDA’s Fast Track program, it can take nearly a decade before a pharmaceutical receives FDA approval. Even with Fast Track designation, drug approval can require years of investigation. With cannabis-based medicines containing plant-derived THC, approval could take even longer.

For starters, clinical trials aren’t simple to conduct. Research doctors must apply to the FDA to legally perform the trials on living, breathing human subjects. To even get to the point of testing something on people, drug researchers must pass preliminary clinical trials on animals like rats or monkeys.

If a cannabinoid medicine appears safe in animals, doctors can potentially try it on humans, but only after receiving FDA approval — which the FDA can be pretty stingy about, especially when it comes cannabis. To date, the FDA has only approved one drug made from cannabis, Epidiolex, which is only prescribed to seizure patients. All other CBD products sold in the US are not FDA-approved nor are they regulated by any federal agency.

However, there’s another cannabis-derived pharmaceutical out there, Sativex. Sativex, made by the same company that made Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals, is a mixture of THC and CBD. While it’s available in Europe, parts of Asia, and the Middle East, it’s not available in the US. In 2017, the CEO of GW Pharmaceuticals told MERRY JANE that the company didn’t pursue FDA approval for Sativex in the US because there were too many bureaucratic hurdles, and Sativex likely wouldn’t receive FDA approval in a timely manner simply because it contains plant-derived THC.

Original Article: Merry Jane

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