Overregulation Drives Illegal Marijuana Market In Legal States, Study Suggests

Overregulation Drives Illegal Marijuana Market In Legal States, Study Suggests

Original Post: Marijuana Moment: Overregulation Drives Illegal Marijuana Market In Legal States, Study Suggests

[Canniseur: What the hell do cannabis regulators expect? We have a perfect model for re-regulation (and over-regulation) and it’s called the alcoholic beverage industry. After prohibition, many state regulators were over taxing, over regulating, and over indulging themselves with bureaucratic lunacy. And guess what happened? There was more bootleg whiskey than legal whiskey. Mr. Song’s paper, which a large part of this story is based on, should have taken history into account.]

Excessive state regulations may be the reason illegal marijuana markets continue to exist after legalization, a new exploratory study found after looking at data from the first two U.S. states to end cannabis prohibition.

“The qualitative analysis of news reports reveals that regulation is one of the main reasons that people stay in the illicit market,” the paper states. “The comparison of marijuana crime trends in Colorado and Washington shows mixed findings. While marijuana offense rates in Colorado largely remained steady over the years, those in Washington increased dramatically after the implementation of more intensive regulations.”

Published in July, the research is the master’s thesis of Sikang Song, a graduate student of the criminology and criminal justice department at Portland State University.

Song writes that he was interested in understanding why the unregulated marijuana market persists in states where cannabis is legal. Since growers, sellers and consumers have “legitimate channels” to produce, trade and obtain cannabis, these illegal avenues should presumably diminish.

Yet research shows they haven’t disappeared altogether: Last year, one report found that 18 percent of cannabis consumers in California said they purchased marijuana products from an unlicensed seller.

For his analysis, Song investigated whether there’s an association between how intense state cannabis-related regulations are and the extent of the remaining illegal market. First, he reviewed news articles published between late 2013 to April 2019 featuring interviews with cultivators, sellers and consumers who shared the various reasons why they remain in the unregulated market. He then looked into whether marijuana arrest rates changed in the first two legal states after new sets of regulations were installed.

In Washington, he used June 2016 as the intervention point, and in Colorado, he used November 2015 and January 2017 as intervention points. (In 2017, for example, Colorado state lawmakers passed new rules regarding labeling and packaging of all containers holding marijuana flower and trim, concentrates and other products.)

According to the study, the reasons most people said they grew or sold marijuana illegally were “strict regulations and the high cost associated with the compliance.”

“Over two thirds of recording units (68%; n = 115) contain interviews and quotations from black market participants stating this reason,” the paper states. “Terms such as ‘overregulation,’ ‘cost of compliance,’ ‘high taxes’ are frequently used in the headlines and texts to describe ‘barriers’ for ‘small producers’ to enter the legal market or ‘drive’ them to the black market.”

Other reasons for staying in the illegal marijuana market included high taxes, market fluctuations and organized crime.

Using an interrupted-time series analysis, Song also found that Washington’s crime rate increased after the state introduced more regulations. “In 2014 and 2015, the marijuana crime rates per 100,000 residents were both at around 26,” he writes. “This number was increased to more than 28 incidents per 100,000 residents in 2016. In 2017, a total of 2,628 marijuana crimes were reported by law enforcement agencies in Washington, making the annual crime rates 35.96 per capita.”

Colorado, on the other hand, did not see any significant short- or long-term changes to its cannabis-related crime rates after the state implemented new marijuana regulations.

“Although the findings are not conclusive, the results of Washington data show that regulation intensity may be one of the main factors that influences or explains the persistence of illegal cannabis transactions after the legalization,” the study states. “The fact that Washington’s marijuana black market kept growing after the implementation of more complex and sophisticated regulations at least indicates a correlation between regulation intensity and the increase of the black market in the case of Washington.”

The fact that similar findings were not reported in Colorado, the study continues, suggests “the magnitude of illicit marijuana activities may be affected by regulation intensity in some states.”

Ultimately, the author points out, these results raise questions about “the possible adverse effect of intensive regulations to researchers and policy makers.”

If one of the goals in marijuana legalization is to eliminate the unregulated market, Song writes, it’s important for lawmakers to consider the implications of unnecessarily strict state rules. Instead, they should focus on creating an “equitable and accessible market that allows the coexistence of both large and small businesses.”

“The cost of compliance to regulations should be reduced to remove the barriers of establishing a legal marijuana business,” Song concludes, adding that “future policies should also pay more attention to cracking down [on] persistent illegal growers and sellers and organized crime groups who are unwilling to participate the legal market.”

Photo courtesy of Brian Shamblen.

Overregulation Drives Illegal Marijuana Market In Legal States, Study Suggests was posted on Marijuana Moment.

Marijuana Enhances Sex And Masturbation, Survey Finds

Marijuana Enhances Sex And Masturbation, Survey Finds

Original Post: Marijuana Moment: Marijuana Enhances Sex And Masturbation, Survey Finds

[Canniseur: Scientific studies have told us that cannabis can be good for our sex lives. Quantification isn’t the same as qualification from those who consume. And this survey certainly seems to qualify cannabis as a terrific enhancer for our sex lives.]

Whether you’re partnered up or riding solo, marijuana can enhance the longevity, frequency and quality of sexual pleasure, reports a new survey out on Tuesday.

Though a number of recent scientific studies have found consuming cannabis can improve bedroom activities for men and women, a report from Lioness, the makers of the world’s first smart vibrator, and cannabis delivery service Eaze offers a more in-depth look at how the substance can affect people’s sex lives.

“Cannabis can enhance your orgasms no matter who you are,” the report states. “While a satisfying sex life is the result of many variables, cannabis can increase the length, frequency of, and quality of your orgasms and pleasure sessions whether you’re single or married, solo or with a partner, young adult or silver fox.”

The report is the result of an online survey shared with 432 Lioness newsletter subscribers in North America between June 23 and July 1. Researchers also included perspective from 19 Lioness users who documented their experiences with different cannabis products using their device. Products included THC- and CBD-infused vaporizers, edibles and lubricants.

“As cannabis becomes more and more a part of daily lives,” said Peter Gigante, Head of Data Research at Eaze, in an emailed statement, “we hope the key insights in this report help consumers understand its various benefits in the bedroom, and encourage people to explore it as knowledgeably as possible.”

Here are the different ways cannabis makes sex better, according to the report:

Longer Sessions

Participants reported that sex without marijuana consumption lasted 34.6 minutes with a partner, 19.2 minutes on their own and 12.6 minutes with the Lioness smart vibrator. When they consumed, however, 73 percent said their partner sessions went longer while 64 percent reported spending more time pleasuring themselves. Married couples were more likely to spend more time enjoying one another while consuming cannabis than single people, and the product participants reported having “the most significant impact on orgasm length and frequency” were THC edibles.

More Orgasms

Nearly half of participants said they experienced more orgasms when they consumed marijuana, whether it was during masturbation or partnered sex (43 percent and 48 percent, respectively). THC edibles were once again found to be associated with an increase in orgasms.

Easier to Reach Orgasm

Sixty-three percent of participants said cannabis made reaching an orgasm easier when they were solo, while 71 percent reported the same when they were with a partner. “Respondents found that cannabis helped shorten the time it took to achieve orgasm, with or without a partner,” the report states. “The anecdotal and empirical evidence we collected indicates that the effects of cannabis helped shorten the time between the start of the session and the orgasm.”

Additionally, according to the report, “Lioness data found that the duration of each orgasm itself increased by 14% and 46%, and was associated with greater self-reported masturbation satisfaction. For reference, the average orgasm in the study lasted for 33.6 seconds with cannabis.”

More Satisfaction

Eight-five percent and 79 percent of respondents said cannabis helped them feel more satisfied with the quality of their orgasms during solo and partnered sessions, respectively. Using sex toys while consuming cannabis also became more pleasurable for a majority of participants, whether they used them on their own or with a partner. That includes 87 percent of married people.

Researchers also took a closer look at how THC and CBD impact sex. According to the report‘s findings, both cannabinoids enhanced the sexual experience. CBD products, however, helped participants reach orgasms “easier” while THC products led to more “intense and satisfying” sessions.

In a statement emailed to Marijuana Moment, Lioness co-founder and CEO Liz Klinger talked about the importance of normalizing such conversations around sexual health and pleasure. “For far too long, the benefits of sexual pleasure and cannabis have been overlooked and underfunded due to taboo and fear,” she said. “The goal of this report is to continue to drive conversation and education about the effects of cannabis use in the bedroom, and we’re really excited to share some of the unique findings for both solo and partner sessions.”

Photo by Sharon McCutcheon on Unsplash

Marijuana Enhances Sex And Masturbation, Survey Finds was posted on Marijuana Moment.

Marijuana Legalization Causes ‘Significant Decline’ In Opioid Overdoses, New Research Finds

Marijuana Legalization Causes ‘Significant Decline’ In Opioid Overdoses, New Research Finds

Original Post: Marijuana Moment: Marijuana Legalization Causes ‘Significant Decline’ In Opioid Overdoses, New Research Finds

[Canniseur: If true, this is really big news. A 20% drop in overdose deaths in adult use states is an amazing statistic. If more research confirms this statistic, it strengthens the case for legal cannabis nationally.]

Two new studies find that opioid-related deaths decline when states legalize access to marijuana. In fact, when adult-use cannabis laws are in place, the rate of opioid overdoses declines by at least 20 percent.

Both papers, published in the journal Economic Inquiry, not only show the impact of passing such laws, but also how dispensaries play a role in helping to quell these deaths.

The first study, helmed by researchers in Massachusetts and Colorado, claims to be the first to show the causal effects of access to recreational cannabis on opioid mortality.

“We find that marijuana legalization causes a significant decline in opioid mortality— especially deaths from synthetic opioids—with particularly pronounced benefits in states that have legalized recreational usage,” the study’s authors write. “Yet it is not legalization, per se, that produces these gains; rather, states that have legal access via dispensaries see the largest reductions in mortality.”

“We estimate that [recreational marijuana laws] reduce annual opioid mortality in the range of 20%–35%, with particularly pronounced effects for synthetic opioids.”

The study used three main sources of data: death rates involving all opiates, prescription opioids and synthetic opioids from January 1999 through the end of 2017; the history of marijuana legalization in each state (including when legislation was passed and when dispensaries opened for business) and state-level demographic information. During the study period, 29 states had approved medical cannabis, while recreational marijuana was legalized in eight states plus the District of Columbia. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased six times over between 1999 and 2017. Additionally, 36 percent of the 47,600 opioid overdoes in 2017 involved prescription opioids.

After running several statistical and mathematical models that included checks to ensure their results were consistent, the study’s authors found that broader adult-use laws reduce a state’s opioid death rate between 20 percent (for all opiates and prescription opioids) to 35 percent (for synthetic opioids).

“Recreational marijuana laws affect a much larger population than medical marijuana laws, yet we know relatively little about their effects,” study co-author Nathan W. Chan, PhD said in a press release. “Focusing on the recent wave of recreational marijuana laws in the U.S., we find that opioid mortality rates drop when recreational marijuana becomes widely available via dispensaries.”

“Our estimates are sizable,” the study itself states. “For reference, the average never-legalizer state has 4.82 fatalities per 100,000 people from All Opiates (Synthetic Opioids) annually, while for the average [medical marijuana law] state, these are 6.067 and 0.856 per 100,000 people. Thus, our estimates imply annual reductions in All Opioid mortality between 1.01 and 1.27 deaths per 100,000 people for non-[recreational marijuana law] states, on average. For a state with a population of 5 million (near the nationwide median), this would save on the order of 50 lives per year, or roughly 10 averted deaths from Synthetic Opioids alone.”

Those are conservative estimates, the authors add.

Additionally, models showed that white people and women saw the highest reductions in synthetic opioid deaths in states that legalized recreational cannabis: Whites experienced a 32 percent decrease, while the statistical effect for women was larger and “highly statistically significant” compared to what they found for men.

The authors did not identify what mechanism is responsible for this reduction in mortality rates, though past research suggests people who can legally access marijuana may substitute it for opioids. A recent study, for example, found the majority of people who shopped at cannabis retail shops reported using marijuana to help with pain and sleep.

The new study’s authors do stress, however, that the causal effect they identified is “highly robust.”

“Our bedrock findings remain unmoved by variations in modeling assumptions and selections of control variables, and our findings are further corroborated through placebo tests,” they write. “Our results show that there are substantial ancillary benefits to marijuana legalization, especially [recreational marijuana laws], and they offer important food for thought as many states continue to contemplate expansions to both medical and recreational marijuana access.”

Their findings support a growing body of research that has linked the availability of medical marijuana dispensaries with a drop in the rate of local opioid-related deaths.

In fact, that was the focus of the second cannabis-related study published recently in Economic Inquiry. According to its findings, after a medical cannabis dispensary opened in a county, prescription opioid deaths fell locally by approximately 11 percent. These results, the author writes, suggest “a substitutability between marijuana and opioids.”

“Furthermore,” the study concludes, “the unintended beneficial effects of allowing for marijuana dispensary operations should be considered by policymakers as they aim to curtail narcotic abuse and limit the impact of the opioid epidemic.”

New Analysis Explores Relationship Between Medical Marijuana And Opioid Overdoses

Marijuana Legalization Causes ‘Significant Decline’ In Opioid Overdoses, New Research Finds was posted on Marijuana Moment.

Researchers Just Uncovered A 1,000-Year-Old Psychedelic Drug Stash

Researchers Just Uncovered A 1,000-Year-Old Psychedelic Drug Stash

Original Post: Marijuana Moment: Researchers Just Uncovered A 1,000-Year-Old Psychedelic Drug Stash

[Canniseur: Is this a shaman’s stash or someone’s personal supply? This kind of artifact discovery allows us to put together missing pieces of our history. Now we know, definitively, psychedelics were used in ancient times. However if you asked me even before this discovery I would have said, psychedelics have been in use since the cognitive revolution began 70,000 years ago.]

It’s well documented that humans have consumed alcohol and caffeine for thousands of years. Now, new research offers evidence that people have also been ingesting a number of even more mind-altering substances, including those involved in making the powerful hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, for at least 1,000 years.

And we have the discovery of an ancient South American drug stash stored in a pouch made out of fox snouts to thank for that.

According to a study published Monday, a team of archaeologists discovered a “ritual bundle” in southwestern Bolivia that included, among other items, a large leather bag, a “snuffing tablet” that would have been used to grind plants, a “snuffing tube” for ingesting the substances and a pouch fashioned with the snouts of three foxes. Researchers at UC Berkeley tested a sample taken from inside the pouch to discover at least five plant-based psychoactive substances, including dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, both of which are key ingredients in ayahuasca.

Ayahuasca, a psychedelic brew typically associated with indigenous people from Amazonian cultures, produces strong and vivid hallucinations and has been used for spiritual healing facilitated by shamans. DMT—like marijuana—is considered an illegal Schedule I substance in the U.S.

The new findings, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, come as a handful of city and state governments in the U.S. are considering measures to decriminalize psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin. On Tuesday, for example, Denver voters could make their city the first in the U.S. to decriminalize psychedelic mushrooms.

The stash found at the Bolivian site also contained evidence suggesting that psychedelic mushrooms were once part of the drug collection.

“While psilocin was not in our initial compound screenings, the presence of a peak at the retention times and transitions, corresponding to psilocin, suggests it was in the original sample,” the study says. “Psilocin is also a tryptamine…and it may be possible that its presence in the sample is derived from a psilocin containing fungus.”

Melanie Miller, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Otago in New Zealand, is the study’s lead author. She traveled to Bolivia during her doctoral studies at UC Berkeley to join other archaeologists as they underwent an excavation project in the Sora River valley, located in Bolivia’s Lípez highlands. There, the team discovered the artifacts inside a cave thought to once have been a burial site.

“Our findings support the idea that people have been using these powerful plants for at least 1,000 years, combining them to go on a psychedelic journey, and that ayahuasca use may have roots in antiquity,” Miller said in a statement.

“This is the first evidence of ancient South Americans potentially combining different medicinal plants to produce a powerful substance like ayahuasca,” she added, also describing the fox snout pouch as “the most amazing artifact I’ve had the privilege to work with.”

In addition to DMT and harmine, researchers also found trace amounts of bufotenine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine. Using these substances in any number of combinations would produce mind-altering, hallucinogenic effects. The discovery boasts the largest number of psychoactive substances found in one place in South America.

“Our results indicate that this is the largest number of psychoactive compounds found in association with a single archaeological artifact from South America.”

“While evidence of direct consumption of any of these plants is absent (no human remains were associated with this archaeological context),” the authors write in their study, “the substantial evidence of the presence of hallucinogenic plants is compelling.”

“Few studies have recovered direct evidence of psychoactives in South American archaeological contexts, and this case systematically demonstrates evidence for multiple psychoactive plants found together in a single artifact,” the paper says. “Importantly, as others have noted, these plants come from distant and diverse ecological zones. Because these plants are foreign to the Lípez highlands, it remains to be established whether they were acquired through trading networks or directly by the shamans themselves.”

What is clear is that humans have been using psychoactive plants for medicinal or therapeutic reasons for a very long time—and the push to restore that right is gaining political traction.

Photo courtesy of Jose Capriles/Penn State.

Researchers Just Uncovered A 1,000-Year-Old Psychedelic Drug Stash was posted on Marijuana Moment.

Psychedelic Toad Venom Relieves Depression, Anxiety And Stress, Studies Find

Psychedelic Toad Venom Relieves Depression, Anxiety And Stress, Studies Find

Original Post: Marijuana Moment: Psychedelic Toad Venom Relieves Depression, Anxiety And Stress, Studies Find

[Canniseur: Fascinating that as a society we’re beginning to find there might be a real use for psychedelic compounds. This particular one has been considered a ‘venom’ of toads. There are many ‘toxins’ and chemical compounds that need study. As a society, we’ve had a somewhat puritanical outlook on what these compounds can do to enhance the human condition. We need to change the concept that these ‘toxins’ are for getting high and consider the real effect and potential benefit these ‘drugs’ might provide.]

A single smoked hit of the dried psychedelic secretion of a certain North American toad can potentially improve a person’s mental health, according to new research.

The study, published this month, found that people reported feeling more satisfied with life right after intake, and that increase in satisfaction persisted even four weeks later. They also reported feeling more mindful over time.

“Ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress decreased after the session, and reached significance at 4 weeks,” the researchers wrote.

The substance in question is called 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), which was initially discovered in the bark of a plant. Researchers later realized the Bufo alvarius toad, more commonly known as the Colorado river toad, secretes a poisonous, milky-white substance in its skin and glands that also contains the 5-MeO-DMT compound.

People who smoke 5-MeO-DMT report having mystical-type experiences, characterized by awe, amazement, intense self-awareness and timelessness, among other effects. Past research has also shown that the compound is associated with a reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress, and has effectively helped consumers deal with alcoholism and drug abuse.

As first reported by IFL Science, the current study, led by Malin Uthaug of Maastricht University, aimed to better understand just how effective 5-MeO-DMT could be as a treatment for certain mental health conditions. The authors recruited a total of 75 people from Czech Republic, Spain and The Netherlands to participate in their observational research. Forty-two percent of participants said they were interested in the practice because they wanted to better understand themselves, while problem-solving and spiritual healing were cited as other motivations.

The study’s authors assessed participants using several psychiatric tests at three different points: prior to the session during which they inhaled the vapor containing 5-MeO-DMT, 24 hours after use and four weeks post-inhalation. During the sessions, facilitators reported participants inhaled a range of 20 milligrams up to 120 milligrams of the dried toad secretion.

According to the study’s findings, which were published in the journal Psychopharmacology, a single dose of the dried toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT produced both short and long-term improvements in self-reported ratings of satisfaction with life, depression, anxiety and stress. Not only did life satisfaction increase 7 percent one day after the smoke session, the average rate of depression among participants dropped 18 percent below baseline levels, anxiety by 39 percent and stress by 27 percent.

Four weeks later, the authors found that life satisfaction had increased to 11 percent above baseline, while depression ratings had dropped 68 percent. Anxiety and stress were also down 56 percent and 48 percent, respectively.

 

Via Psychopharmacology

Some participants who had especially intense 5-MeO-DMT sessions reported even greater effects on their moods.

Those who “experienced high levels of ego dissolution or oceanic boundlessness during the session displayed higher ratings of satisfaction with life and lower ratings of depression and stress,” the study found.

Understanding how or why dried toad secretion may help improve symptoms of depression and anxiety was outside the scope of this study. The authors, however, offer a few theories, including the notion that psychedelic compounds such as 5-MeO-DMT may bind to certain receptors in the brain, thus reducing inflammation and improving symptoms associated with some neuropsychiatric diseases, such as depression.

It’s important to point out, however, that one of the study’s limitations was inconsistent participation. Of the 75 participants, 42 completed the test assessments both before inhalation of the dried toad secretion vapor and within 24 hours, while only 24 completed the test battery at the final assessment.

Despite the lack of a proper control group, the results are promising, the authors said. “This study suggests that a single administration of vapor from toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT produces rapid and persistent improvements in satisfaction with life, mindfulness and psychopathological symptoms, and that these changes are associated to the strength of the psychedelic experience,” they concluded, adding a call for more research.

The results also support a separate recent study that found a synthetic version of 5-MeO-DMT also appeared to offer therapeutic benefits to those who inhale it. In a survey of 362 adults who said they’d had a mystical experience with 5-MeO-DMT in a group setting, approximately 80 percent reported their anxiety or depression had improved afterward.

Alan Davis, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was one of the authors on that study, which was published in The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse in March. “Research has shown that psychedelics given alongside psychotherapy help people with depression and anxiety,” Davis said in a statement. “However, psychedelic sessions usually require 7-8 hours per session because psychedelics typically have a long duration of action. Because 5-MeO-DMT is short-acting and lasts approximately 30-90 minutes, it could be much easier to use as an adjunct to therapy because current therapies usually involve a 60-90 minute session.”

Photo courtesy of Renee Grayson.

Psychedelic Toad Venom Relieves Depression, Anxiety And Stress, Studies Find was posted on Marijuana Moment.

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